Учебник гарагуля английский язык для строительных специальностей

Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей, Гарагуля С.И., 2011.

     Учебное пособие построено на базе вузовского стандарта курса иностранного языка для неязыковых вузов и рассчитано на профессионально-ориентированный этап обучения. Основная цель учебного пособия — развитие и совершенствование умения читать и переводить оригинальную литературу по специальности, а также навыков устной речи и аудирования в пределах пройденной тематики. Уделяется особое внимание расширению словарного запаса по строительному делу, изучению и тренировке грамматических структур, которые характеризуются высокой частотностью употребления в научной речи
Предназначено для студентов инженерно-строительных вузов, может быть рекомендовано магистрантам, аспирантам, научным работникам и широкому кругу специалистов-практиков, желающих повысить свой уровень владения профессиональным английским языком.

Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей, Гарагуля С.И., 2011

Building Engineering as a Discipline.
Building construction is an ancient human activity. It began with the purely functional need for a controlled environment to moderate the effects of climate. Constructed shelters were one means by which human beings were able to adapt themselves to a wide variety of climates and become a global species.

Building construction today is a significant part of industrial culture, a manifestation of its diversity and complexity and a measure of its mastery of natural forces, which can produce a widely varied built environment to serve the diverse needs of society.

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                    Серия
Высшее образование)
С. И . Гарагуля
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ я з ы к
р я СТУДЕНТОВ
СТРОИТЕЛЬНЫХ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ
Learning Building Construction
in English
Рекомендовано
Государственным образовательным учреждением
высшего профессионального образования
«Московский государственный лингвистический университет»
в качестве учебного пособия для студентов,
обучающихся по специальностям ВПО
270102 «Промышленное и гражданское строительство»,
270105 «Городское строительство и хозяйство»,
120303 «Городской кадастр», 270114 «Проектирование зданий»
Ростов-на-Дону
«ФЕНИКС»
2011


УДК 811 111 69 0(0758) ББК 81 2Англ-923 КТК 8032 Г20 Рецензенты: доктор филологических наук, профессор О Н Прохорова (Белгородский государственный университет) доктор технических наук, профессор А Г Юрьев (Белгородский государственный технологический университет им В Г Шухова) Гарагуля С. И . Р2о Английский я зы к для студентов строительных специ­ альностей. Learning Building Construction in English : учебное пособие / С. И. Гарагуля. — Ростов н/Д : Феникс, 2011. — 347, [1] с. — (Высшее образование). ISBN 978-5 -222 -18653-4 Учебное пособие построено на базе вузовского стандарта курса иностранного языка для неязыковых вузов и рассчита­ но на профессионально-ориентированный этап обучения. Ос­ новная цель учебного пособия — развитие и совершенствова­ ние умения читать и переводить оригинальную литературу по специальности, а также навыков устной речи и аудирования в пределах пройденной тематики. Уделяется особое внима­ ние расширению словарного запаса по строительному делу, изучению и тренировке грамматических структур, которые характеризуются высокой частотностью употребления в на­ учной речи Предназна чено для студентов ин женерно -строител ьных ву­ зов, может быть рекомендовано магистрантам, аспирантам, научным работникам и широкому кругу специалистов-прак- тиков, желающих повысить свой уровень владения проф ес­ сиональным английским языком. УДК 811.111 69 0(075 8) ISBN 978-5 -222 -18653-4 ББК 81.2Англ-923 © Гарагуля С И , 2011 © Оформление ООО «Феникс», 2011
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для студентов инженерно-строительных вузов, обучающихся по специально­ стям «Промышленное и гражданское строительство», «Город­ ское строительство и хозяйство», «Городской кадастр», « Про­ ектирование зданий» и др. Оно может быть рекомендовано магистрантам, аспирантам, научным работникам и широко­ му кругу специалистов-практиков, желающих повысить свой уровень владения профессиональным английским языком. Пособие построено на базе вузовского стандарта курса ино­ странного языка для неязыковых вузов и рассчитано на про­ фессионально-ориентированный этап обучения. Основная цель учебного пособия —развитие и совершен­ ствование умения читать и переводить оригинальную л итера­ туру на английском языке по специальности, а также навыков устной речи и аудирования в пределах пройденной тематики. Уделяется особое внимание расширению словарного запаса по строительному делу, повторению грамматических структур ба­ зового курса и их тренировке. Весь материал учебного пособия разделен на 12 уроков-тем (Units) и включает части Supplementary Reading s Tapescripts. Каждый урок-тема, посвященный конкретной инженерно­ строительной проблематике, состоит из четырех разделов (Sections): Vocabulary and Word Study, Grammar, Reading and Speaking и Listening and Speaking. Раздел Vocabulary and Word Study знакомит студентов с пр о­ фессиональной лексикой, которая определяется содержанием текстов в пределах изучаемой темы. Активный словарь отра­ жает наиболее важные понятия и явления, представленные в литературе по строительству. Терминологическая лексика зак­ репляется в разнообразных упражнениях, которые построены и расположены по принципу «от простого к сложному» — от уровня слова, словосочетания, предложения до уровня
4 Английский я зык для студентов строительных специальностей сверхфразового единства. Имеются упражнения на словооб­ разование, многозначность, определение значений именных словосочетаний с препозитивными определениями, узнава­ ние интернациональных слов и терминов В разделе Grammar представлены коммуникативно-ори­ ентированные задания, нацеленные на развитие грамматичес­ ких навыков чтения специальной литературы на английском языке. Грамматический материал включает преимуществен­ но те явления, которые характеризуются высокой частотнос­ тью употребления в научной речи. Прежде всего, это отно­ сится к структуре предложения, формам страдательного зало­ га, модальным глаголам, неличным формам глагола и др. Каждый раздел Reading and Speaking содержит три аутен­ тичных текста - А, В и С, объединенных тематикой урока и системой упражнений, которые ориентированы на овладение студентами основными видами чтения и обучение говорению. Текст А, рассматриваемый в качестве основного, предназна­ чен для изучающего чтения. К нему даются предтекстовые и послетекстовые упражнения. Предтекстовые задания пресле­ дуют цель формирования навыков прогнозирования и умения вести беседу общего содержания по теме урока. Упражнения послетекстового этапа способствуют развитию монологичес­ кой речи —констатировать факт или высказать мнение, сде­ лать короткое сообщение или обобщение. К данному тексту предусмотрено задание на чтение определенного абзаца вслух. Тексты В и С предполагают формирование навыков ознако­ мительного, просмотрового или поискового чтения. Упраж­ нения к этим текстам направлены на определение основной темы или идеи текста, поиск конкретных данных, использо­ вание определенной информации в соответствии с коммуни­ кативными задачами. В разделе Listening and Speaking представлены задания к двум аудиотекстам, которые могут быть прочитаны препода­ вателем или звучать в записи. Небольшие по объему тексты монологического характера непосредственно связаны с темой
Предисловие 5 урока. Контроль понимания осуществляется с помощью воп­ росно-ответных упражнений, путем заполнения таблиц/схем и др. Цель заданий состоит в понимании общего смысла про­ слушанного текста, нахождении или извлечении конкретной информации, которые служат основой для краткого изложе­ ния содержания аудиотекста, дискуссии по теме и т.д. В разделе Tapescripts приводятся тексты для аудирования К этой части учебника студенты обращаются на заключитель­ ном этапе работы над разделом Listening and Speaking, что позволяет им проверить правильность понимания текста, а также выявить непонятные фрагменты, выписав и выучив незнакомые слова. Раздел Supplementary Reading включает дополнительные тексты без заданий (статьи из британского журнала “New Civil Engineer International”) , которые могут быть использованы как для работы в группе, так и для самостоятельной работы студентов. Они либо расширяют информацию по строитель­ ству, представленную в уроках-темах, либо освещают новые проблемы в области строительства. Материалы настоящего учебного пособия прошли апроба­ цию на занятиях со студентами различных групп и уровней архитектурно-строительного института Белгородского государ­ ственного технологического университета им. В.Г. Шухова. Автор считает своим долгом выразить искренню ю пр и­ знательность рецензентам —доктору филологических наук, профессору Ольге Н иколаевне Прохоровой за детальный анализ рукописи и ценные критические замечания, а также доктору технических наук, профессору Александру Гаври­ ловичу Юрьеву за консультации по отбору материала для данного пособия. Автор
UNIT 1 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SECTION 1 VOCABULARY AND WORD STUDY 1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary to the text “Building Engineering as a Discipline” and translate the given 1. build (built) [bild] v — строить buildingn— здание, строение, сооружение; строитель­ ство buildingdesign [di'zain] — проектирование зданий They buildnew houses in that area. Types ofbuildingsmaybe classified according to the rolein the community. M odem building constitutes a vital element of national industry 2. construct [kan'strAkt] v — строить, сооружать construction [ksn'strskjn] n— строительство, стройка building construction —домостроение They are planning to construct a new supermarket near our house. The factors that condition the selection of materials for construction include availability, cost and physical properties. During building construction, several things went wrong. 3. building engineering Lendji'marirj] — строительство граж­ данских зданий
и ш 1 . BUILDING CONSTRUCTION U civil engineering ['sivl] — гражданское строительство structuralengineering['strAktfral] — проектирование зда­ ний и сооружений Building science and building engineering are fields of study concerned with the technical performance ofbuildings, building materials, and building systems. I am doing a civilengineenng course at the university, which is veryhard,but I am reallyenjoying it. Structuralengineeringhas made rapid strides in the last century. 4. air-conditioning['eakan.dijriirt] n— кондиционирование air-conditionern— кондиционер Buildings have air-conditioning. There are many similarities in the way an air-conditionerworks to the way a refrigerator works. 5. mean [mi:n](meant [ment])v— значить; подразумевать means [mi:nz] n— средство, способ;ресурсы bymeansof— посредством The redlightmeans“Stop” . Theydidn’t provide me with any meansoftransport. The tests were marked bymeansofa computer. 6. diverse[dai'va:s] adj—разнообразный,разный diversity [dai'va:siti] n— разнообразие, многообразие The growing building industry offers diversejob opportunities. He has a great diversityof interests. 7. impact [Tmpsekt] — n воздействие, влияние The computer hashad (made) agreat impacton modem life. 8. measure ['теза] —nvмера; измерять, иметь размеры measurement['тезэтэт] п—размер, измерение We take certain measuresto reduce the consumption of the m aterial. She measuredthe table This table measurestwo metres
L_l Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей by one metre. We can find the size of something by means of measurement. 9 vary['ѵеэп] v — менять, изменять, варьировать various ['vearias] adj— различный,разный, разнооб­ разный variety [va'raiati] n — разнообразие Steel variesconsiderablyinitsmicrostructure. Thedemandfor variousbuilding materials is enormous. A wide varietyof mass- produced elements are now available. 10. maintain [mein'tein] v — обслуживать, содержать в ис­ правности, поддерживать, сохранять, содержать maintenance ['meintanans] п— уход, содержание в ис­ правности, текущий ремонт, поддержка, содержание, сохранение Some floor matenals are easy to maintain. These operations involve the construction, maintenanceof structures, grounds, and so on. 11. structure ['strAktJb]n— конструкция, сооружение, стро­ ение, здание, конструкция building structure — строительная конструкция, здание Wood structureswere very common in earliertimes. The more insulation we provide, the more the building structure costs. 12. foundation [faun'deijn] и — фундамент First they laid thefoundation, and then they built the walls. 13. computer-aideddesign (CAD) [kam/pju:ta(r)'eidid] — ав­ томатизированное проектирование Today, the use of Computer-Aided Design techniques has revolutionised design and construction processes within the industry.
UNIT1 . BUILDING CONSTRUCTION h 14. facility[fa'siliti]n—устройство, приспособление, обо­ рудование; сооружение; (pi.) условия, возможности , средства A newfacilityhadbeenbuiltjust outside the city to process all the sewage. The new factory has enabled to bring research and development activities under the same roof as all production facilities 15. perform [рэТзта] v— исполнять, выполнять, совершать performance[pa'fomans] n— производительность, эф­ фективность, кпд; эксплуатационные характеристики; работа They perform a considerable amount of building work at the factory. This enables us to ensure the goodperformanceofthe beams. 16. utility[ju:'tiliti]n—(pi.) инженерные сети; коммуналь­ ные услуги; коммунальные предприятия обслуживания (сооружения) conservation utility[.konsa'veijn] —управление по охра­ не природы и рационального природопользования The introduction of urban utilitiesimproved life in the city 17. survey['sa:vei] [ss'vei] n v — топографическая съемка (служба);производить топографическую съемку, меже­ вать surveyingп—съемка, промер, картирование surveyor [ss'veia] п— геодезист, маркшейдер Surveysare madefor manypurposes, such asthedetermination of areas, and the plotting of maps. They started tosurveythe piece of land that the new motorway will pass through. Surveyingis employedto measure and locate lines and angleson the surface of the earth. Many new instruments are employed to facilitate the surveyor’s w o rk .
18. apply [э'ріаі] ѵ— использовать, применять applied science ['saians] — прикладная наука application [,aepli'keijh] n — применение, использо­ вание This building m ethod is successfully appliedin different cities and towns in this country. Application ofplastics in the building field widensfrom yearto year. 19. operate ['opareit] v — работать, приводить в действие operation п —работа, операция, эксплуатация The instrument was set to operate at a certain pressure. All operationson the site are minimized. 20. renovate ['renaveit] v— восстанавливать, возобновлять renovation [,гепэи'ѵеі/п] n—реконструкция, восстанов­ ление The house wasrenovatedbythe current owners to provide m odem living. The stadium is re-opening after a three-year renovation. 2. Read and translate the following international words. Look up their transcriptions in the dictionary if necessary. Mind the part of speech. Activity n, function n, effect n, global adj, m anifestation n, natural adj, produce v, integrate v, technology n, design n v, discipline n, interdisciplinary adj, manager n, management n, operation n,traditional adj, ventilation n, mechanical adj, acoustics n, project n, methodology n, cycle n, efficiency n, career n, budget n v, logistics n, tender n, resource n. 10JАнглийскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей
и ш 1 . BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 1 1 3. M atch the pairs of synonyms from A and В and translate them. A В 1. repair a. impact 2. operation b. means 3. construction c. application 4. appliance d. foundation 5. restoration e. diverse 6. use f. maintenance 7. base g. performance 8. way h. facility 9. influence i. building 10. various j. renovation 4. M atch the verb on the left with a suitable item on the right. U se each item once only. 1. do a. an air-conditioner 2. measure b. a house 3. install c. utility services 4. carry out d. managementprinciples 5. build e. the windows 6. train f. measurements 7. apply g. among CAD systems 8. take h. a civil engineering course 9. provide i. as a surveyor 10. vary j. building design 5. Make the following sentences complete by translating the words and phrases inbrackets. 1. The inventive monitoring method consists m determining loads applied to (строительные конструкции). 2 .The newowner
ilJ - Английский: [ДЛЯстудентовстроительныхспециальностей wants to (реконструировать) the building he bought. 3 . The building engineering programme is presented (посредством) lectures, tutorials, seminars and case studies. 4 The company seeks a building engineer to (использовать) and (обслуживать) all building equipment and systems. 5. Adegree coursein (проек­ тирование зданий и сооружений)takesfouryearsin the UK. 6. The city engineer (произвел топографическую съемку) the property to amendthe map. 7.Forpeople interestedin the many well-paying careers in (домостроение), this association offers numerous educational and career resources. 8 .This courseprovides students with an understanding ofthe characteristics of а (разно­ образие) of materials used in building. 9 . The company hired a contractor to (выполнить) construction work on a new building. 10. What does the term utility(значить)9 6. Read and translate the following word combinations which come from the texts of the Unit. Mind the use of nouns as attributes in preposition. Look up your dictionary if necessary. Example a) archbuilding — арочное здание b)marketbuilding — зданиерынка c) exhibitionbuilding — зданиедля выставки Power distribution, indoor air quality, project management, construction management, design engineer, cost engineer, process engineer, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning) engineer, facility manager, operation manager, computer programming, the life cycle of a building, energy efficiency, control systems, earthquake resistance, wind effects, career possibilities, soil m echanics, building service systems, craft traditions, materialproperties andperformance, safety standards, site safety, construction delays, construction technologies, tender documents, quality control, building construction project, local building authority regulations, highway construction, on a per square metre (foot) basis.
UNIT1. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 1 3 7. Study the followingpatterns showing the ways some nouns are formedfrom verbs. Complete the charts. Some ofthe missing words are from the texts of the Unit. Read and translate them into Russian. Use your dictionary to help you with the pronunciation. Pattern 1 I Verb + -er/-or — >Noun | The -er/-or suffixes are usedfor aperson whodoes an activity and for things which do aparticularjob. Example,build — строить -> builder — строитель Verb Noun manage ______________________ compute ______________________ direct ______________________ design ______________________ survey ______________________ contract ______________________ elevate ______________________ I Verb+ -ment—>Noun The -ment suffixis usedfor an act or result of something. Example, achieve — достигать —>achievement —достижение
2ІІАнглийский язык для студентов строительных специальностей Verb Noun manage --- ---------------- - environ --- ---------------- - develop -------------------- arrange ------------- ------- establish -------------------- improve -------------------- elevate -------------------- Pattern 3 Verb + -ion/-ation/-ition/-sion/-tion -» N oun The -ion/-ation/-M on/-sion/-tion suffixes are used for an act, state, or result of something. Example:construct — строить construction — строитель­ ство Verb Noun educate _____ ______________ ___ manifest _ __________ ___________ renovate _____ ______________ ___ found ______________________ integrate ____ _________ _________ ventilate _____ ______________ ___ distribute _____ ______________ ___ decide _____ _________ _____ ___ execute _ _________ __________ __ operate _________________ _
UNIT1 . BUILDING CONSTRUCTION lii SECTION 2 GRAMMAR 8. Arrange these words in the right order. U se a capital letter to begin each sentence. Mark each rewritten sentence SVQM P T to show Subject, Verb, Object, Manner (How?), Place (Where?), Time (When?). Example worked, till 5 o’clock, Peter, at the plant. — (S) Peter (V) worked (P) at the plant (T) till 5 o’clock. 1. well, I, English, speak.2 .begins, in September, my term. 3. use, for many, scientists, computers, different purposes. 4. an old, mathematics, science, is. 5 . from the university, will, an engineer, he, be, aftergraduation. 6 . the knowledge of, today, is, very, English, important. 7 . begin, at 9 o’clock, in the morning, the lectures. 8 . tomorrow, will, in Rome, be, she. 9. every, year, leave, schools, millions of, secondary, children. 10. the term, attend, during, and, lectures, seminars, students. 11. a cottage, in the suburbs, constructed, of Moscow, they. 12. statistical, in their work, use, the researchers, methods. 9. Read and translate the following complex sentences with different types of subordinate clauses. Use your dictionary if 1. Technical occupations require more training as a greater technicalknowledge is required. 2 . Construction colleges offer a specialized learning environment for students who want to learn how to understand basic concepts aboutbuildingprocesses. 3 .The industry experts havepredicted thatthere willbe more than 45,000 new constructionjobsin Scotland overthe next decade. 4 . In the fields of architecture and civil engineenng, construction is a process
16 Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. 5. That this type of cables must be placed correctly is essential. 6. Once the design is completed by the design team, a number of construction companies may be asked to make a bid for the work. 7. A construction project is a complex net of contracts and other legal obligations, each of which must be carefully considered. 8. Construction managers may travel considerably when they are responsible for activities at many sites. 9. Although the construction work is not dangerous, injuries can occur. 10. What is important is the correct sequence of building operations. 10. Read and translate the following complex sentences with relative clauses in which the relative conjunctions are left out. Example I haven’t seen the fax we received this morning. — Яневидел факс, который мы получили сегодня утром. 1. The structural engineer must design structures to be safe for their users and to successfully fulfil the function they are designed for. 2. There are lots of different types of engineering. The one thing they have in common is that they use Maths and Science to improve industry and manufacturing. 3. The report he made after the delegation had visited ou r plant shows th at he has finally realized the importance of the work we are doing here. 4. The noise I heard was caused by the arrival of the lorries with new products. 5. The way the weight of the components of concrete is determined is specified by the requirements of the project and the various local building codes and regulations. 6. The type of houses the constructors were building was part of the great construction boom.
UNIT 1 . BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 1 7 11. In some of these sentences you don’t need who, which or that. If you don’t need these words, put them in brackets like this: (who), (which), (that). Example The job that he got wasn’t very interesting, (that can be left out) The people who work in the office are highly skilled experts, (who is necessary here) 1. The technique that they used in structures was worked out by the design team. 2. A number of advantages that ceramic tiles offer to builders make them an attractive proposition. 3. Prospects will be best for people who have a bachelor or higher degree in construction science. 4. The students who we met at the construction site were having practical training. 5. Different plastics which architects use for decorative purposes include glass fibre. 12. Read and translate the following emphatic sentences it is that/which/who into Russian. Example It is the data that (which) are reliable. — Именно эти данные являются надежными. 1. It is this method that speeds up construction work. 2. It is the college which offers a course in building construction. 3. It was Lomonosov who first discovered the law of conservation of energy. 4. It is only by performing a lot of experiments that progress can be made. 5. It is the construction management course that covers several areas of construction science and basic business practices.
18 Английский языкдл я студентов строительных специальностей SECTION 3 READING AND SPEAKING 13. Before you read Text 1A “Building Engineering as a Discipline” , discuss these questions with your groupmates or teacher. a) Do you know how building construction began? b) Is there any difference between civil engineering and building engineering? c) Is building engine ering a big subject? d) Why is building engineering very important in modem life? e) What building engineering courses are usually taught at higher educational institutions? f) What degrees do building engineering academic programmes provide? 14. Read Text 1A to find out if your answers are right or wrong. The following phases may be helpful: Quite so. Exactly. It’s (partly) true. Just the opposite. I don’t think so. That’s right. That’s wrong. • TEXT 1A Building Engineering as a Discipline Building construction is an ancient human activity. It began with the purely functional need for a controlled environment to moderate the effects o f climate. Constructed shelters were one means by which human beings were able to adapt themselves to a wide variety of climates and become a global species. Building construction today is a significant part of industrial culture, a manifestation of its diversity and complexity and a measure of its mastery of natural forces, which can produce a widely
UNIT 1 . BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 19 Institution of Civil Engineering headquarters in London varied built environment to serve the diverse needs of society. Education in the field of Building Engineering as one of the areas of civil engineering is the study of the integrated application of engineering principles and technology to building design and architecture. Building engineering is an interdisciplinary engineering subject that offers a general engineering approach to the planning, design, construction, operation, renovation, and maintenance of buildings, as well as with their impacts on the surrounding environment. The discipline requires pertinent knowledge integrated from traditional well- established disciplines: civil engineering for building structures an d foundation; mechanical engineering for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system (HVAC), and for mechanical service systems; physics for building science, lighting and acoustics; electrical engineering for power distribution and control; chemistry and biology for indoor air quality; architecture for form, function and specifications; economics for project management. Building engineering students are ideally train ed in all phases o f the life cycle of a building, and learn to appreciate buildings as an advanced technological system requiring close integration of many sub-systems and their individual components. Technical problems and appropriate solutions are studied to improve the performance of the building in areas, such as energy efficiency, construction management, HVAC and control systems, advanced building materials, earthquake resistance, wind effects on buildings, computer-aided design. The building engineering graduate may work as a consulting engineer, design engineer, project manager, construction manager, cost engineer, facility manager, conservation-utility director,
20 Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей HVAC engineer, operation manager, process engineer, or in research and development, among other career possibilities. Building engineering academic programmes normally provide an accredited academic degree. The completed degree may be designated as a Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Technology or Bachelor of Applied Science depending upon the university or institute. The length of study is four years and the programme consists of basics of engineering and sciences (technical drawing, engineering mechanics, mechanics of materials, thermodynamics, mathematics, computer programming, surveying), subjects in building engineering sciences (structural analysis a nd design, soil mechanic s, building engineering systems, building economics, construction management, thermal environment and building service systems). In some programmes, elective courses allow students to specialize in one or more sub­ disciplines. Graduates may pursue a postgraduate degree, such as a Master of Engineering, Master of Applied Science, an Engineer’s degree, or a Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering. The Master and Engineer’s degree may consist of either research, coursework or a mixture o f the two. The Doctor o f Philosophy consists o f a significant research component and it is often viewed as the entry point to academia. 15. Find in T ext 1A the paragraph about the areas in which building engineering graduates may work and translate it into Russian. 16. Read aloud paragraph 3. 17. Explain the following references. a) Building construction today is a significant part of industrial culture, a manifestation of its diversity and complexity and a measure of its mastery of natural forces. What does the pronoun its refer to?
U N IT 1 . BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 21 b) Building engineering is an interdisciplinary engineering discipline that offers a general engineering approach to the planning, design, construction, operation, renovation, and maintenance of buildings, as well as with their impacts on the surrounding environment. What does the pronoun their refer to? c) Building engineering students are ideally train ed in all phases o f the life cycle of a building, and learn to appreciate buildings as an advanced technological system requiring close integration o f many sub-systems and their individual components. What does the pronoun their refer to? d) The Master and Engineer’s degree may consist of either research, coursework or a mixture of the two. What are those two? e) The Doctor of Philosophy consists of a significant research component and it is often viewed as the entry point to academia. What does the pronoun it refer to? 18. Underline or mark the main ideas of Text 1A and retell it in English. 19. Skim Text IB “History of the Building Industry” and try to understand what it is about. Give a brief overview of its structure and contents. • TEXT IB History of the Building Industry In early times there were few specialist builders. People constructed their homes from whatever material was available where they lived. The only large buildings were communal ones such as granaries and places of worship for their gods. In ancient Egypt,
Английский язы к для студентов строительных специальностей Greece, and Rome, large buildings were financed by the rulers of the country and built by slaves who had been captured in battle. Stone was used if it was available and where it was not, brick­ making industry developed. After the end of the Roman Empire in the 4th century AD there was very little large-scale building done in Europe for about six hundred years. There were two kinds of buildings other than cottages and farm buildings: castles and churches. Building a cathedral was such a vast undertaking that someone was required to organize all the craftsmen needed for the work. This was usually a master stonemason. At the time of the Renaissance in the 15th and 16th centuries a new sort of building specialist emerged. He was usually a philos­ opher or artist, rather than a craftsman, who would get together a team of building workers and make arrangements to pay them. This was the beginning of the profession of architecture. The Industrial Revolution in the 19th century brought to an end the craft traditions in building. Many new functional buildings were put up in the big towns that were developing — buildings that were not planned to be beautiful but were there to Building construction for house machinery and the workers several apartment blocks who operated it. They had to be built quickly and cheaply. The building materials were brought across the country on the new canals and railways that were quickly constructed to get the raw materials for industry and the finished products to the places where they were needed. When the railways were built, tunnels were dug, and bridges, aqueducts, and roads were built. New materials such as steel were introduced and engineers were trained to use them. Advances in science meant that building designers could calculate in advance
U NIT 1 . BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 23 how a building should be constructed to ensure that it would stand up, instead of relying on a system of trial and error, for it sometimes happened that a building would collapse while it was being built. It was important to calculate accurately the cost of materials and labour, and there came to be so much competition for doing the work that a system of tendering developed. Different contractors would calculate what it would cost to complete a project and then the lowest estimate would be chosen. The quantity surveyor emerged in the late 19th century as a professional specialist in building finance, who could accurately predict the cost of a project. In the late 19th century, all kinds of new technological developments alfected the building industry. The emergence of the skyscraper in Chicago, United States, was made possible not only by the use of steel framing in the structure, but also by the invention of the elevator, the telephone, and air conditioning. The present state of building construction is complex. There is a wide range of building products and systems which are aimed primarily at groups of building types or markets. The design process for buildings is highly organized and draws upon research establishments that study material properties and performance, code officials who adopt and enforce safely standards, and design professionals who determine user needs and design a building to meet those needs. The construction process is also highly organized; it includes the manufacturers of building products and systems, the craftsmen who assemble them on the building site, the contractors who employ and coordinate the work of the craftsmen, and consultants who specialize in such aspects as construction management, quality control, and insurance. 20. Identify the topic of each paragraph of Text IB. 21. Complete the sentences choosing the best variant corresponding to the contents of Text IB.
24 Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей 1) In early times people constructed their homes from a) stone available. b) any material available. c) bricks. 2) At the time of the Renaissance in the 15th and 16th centuries a new sort of building specialist was a) a master stonemason. b) a craftsman. c) an artist. 3) In the 19th century advances in science meant that a) a system of trial and error was relied on. b) design calculations were introduced. c) new materials began to be used. 4) The construction of the skyscraper was made possible by a) the use of steel framing, the invention of the elevator, the telephone, and air conditioning. b) the use of steel framing. c) the invention of the elevator and air conditioning. 5) Now the construction process is highly organized because a) it includes the manufacturers o f building products. b) it involves design professionals. c) it involves different sorts of building experts. 22. Read Text 1C “Construction Projects” and answer the following questions. Discuss your answers with your groupmates. a) What does a construction process involve? b) What is required for the successful execution of a construction project? c) How many types of construction are there? d) Who ensures positive end results o f construction projects?
UNIT 1 . BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 25 e) Why can the cost of construction vary? f) What is the negative outcome of residential construction? g) What are the new methods of construction characterized by? h) Why is industrial construction a very important part of the construction industry? • TEXT 1C Construction Projects In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of multitasking. Normally the job is managed by the project manager and supervised by the construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or project architect. For the successful execution of a project, effective planning is essential. Those involved with the design and execution of the infrastructure in question must consider the environmental impact o f the job, the successful scheduling, budgeting, site safety, availability of materials, logistics, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays, preparing tender documents, etc. In general, there are two types of construction: building construction and industrial construction. Each type of construction project requires a unique team to plan, design, construct, and maintain the project. Building construction is the process of adding structure to real property. The vast majority ofbuilding construction projects are small renovations, such as addition of a room, or renovation of a bathroom . The owner of the property often acts as labourer, paymaster, and design team for the entire f1 ♦4••- -fr—«fro—. Construction on a building in Kansas City
26 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей project. However, all building constructionprojects include some elementsin common — design, financial, and legalconsiderations. Manyprojects ofvarying sizes reach undesirable end results, such as structural collapse, cost overruns, and/orlitigation reason. Those with experiencein the field makedetailed plans and maintain careful oversightduring the projectto ensure apositive outcome. Residential constructiontechnologiesand resources must conform to local building authority regulations and codes of practice. Materials readily available in the area generally dictate the construction materials used (e.g . brick versus stone or timber). The cost of construction on aper square metre basisforhouses can vary dramatically based on site conditions, local regulations, economies of scale (custom designed homes are always more expensive to build) and the availability of skilled workers. Residential and all othertypesofconstruction cangenerate alot of waste, carefulplanning isneeded again here. The popular method of residential construction in the United States is woodframed construction. As efficiency codeshave come into effect in recent years, new construction technologies and methods have emerged. University Construction Management departments are on the cutting edge of the newest methods of construction intended to improve efficiency, performance and reduce constructionwaste. Industrial construction, though a relatively small part of the entire construction industry, is a very important component. Owners of these projects are usually large, for-profit, industrial corporations. These corporations can befound in such industries as medicine, petroleum, chemical, manufacturing, etc. Processes in these industries require highly specialized expertise in planning, design, and construction. As in building and heavy/highway construction, thistype ofconstruction requires a team ofindividuals to ensure a successfulproject.
Предисловие 27 SECTION 4 LISTENING AND SPEAKING 23. Listen to the Text “Buildings: First Impressions”. Study the following commentary: Hampton Court Palace — дворец с парком на берегу реки Темзы близ Лондона, королевская резиденция до 1760г. a) Answer the questions that follow. 1.What isthe most strikingfeature ofBritishtowns and cities? 2. What does a British individual house look like? 3 How do you understand the English proverb: “An Englishman’s home ishis castle”? 4.When did councils startbuilding blocks offlats? 5.Are blocks offlats popularin Britain? 6.What isthe favourite building materialin Bntain today? b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 1A of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about some features of British buildings. d) Tell your groupmates about the block of flats/the private house you live in. 24. Listen to the Text “Some Trendsin theHistory ofBuilding” about the evolution of dwellings and a number of trends of the history of building. a) As you listen, fill in the chart. The firsttrend The second trend The third trend The fourth trend
28 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript IB of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text.
UNIT 2 GREAT CIVIL ENGINEERS Ш SECTION 1 VO CABULARY AND WORD STUDY 1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary to the text “Vladimir G. Shukhov” and translate the given sentences. 1. tower [Чаиэ] n—башня; небоскреб, высотное здание broadcasting tower ['bradkaistip] —радиобашня The Eiffel Toweris an 1889 iron towerlocated in Paris that has become one ofthe most recognizable structures in the world.There are over 4,000 rowerblocks, homes for about 800,000 people. 2. flank[flaeijk]v— располагатьпобокам, примыкать The central street isflankedby two slender octagonal towers. 3. curve [кэ: v] n— кривая; закругление The weight isdistributed along thecurveofthe arch. 4. roof[ru:f]n— крыша, кровля, кровельное покрытие rooferп— кровельщик The concrete roofoithe new four-storeybuilding wasput on. Rooferswork outdoors and at heights, and use ladders and scaffolding. 5. stress n—(механическое) напряжение Building designers have to know about stress.
30 j Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей 6. deform [di'fo:m] v —деформировать(ся), коробить(ся) deformation п—деформация Heat deforms plastics. The amount and character of the deformations are connected with the chemical composition and physical structure of engineering materials. 7. beam [bi:m] n—балка straightbeam [ streit] — прямая балка Beamsare very important membersin many structures. 8. shell n— оболочка, каркас, обшивка grid (lattice) shell [ laetis] — сетчатая (решетчатая) обо­ лочка After the fire, all that was left was the burned-out shellofthe building. Asgridshellsbecame more popular new solutions were developed in terms of choice of material. The Shukhov Tower experiences minimum wind load due to its latticeshellstructure. 9. metal structure — металлическая конструкция Themetalstructuresofthe building were assembled on the site. 10. cause [ka:z] v — быть причиной, вызывать Unsatisfactory organization of work causesdelays. 11 tensile['tensail] adj—работающий на растяжение An earthquake may move the arch and cause tensileforcesin it. 12. storey ['sto:ri] n — этаж Allbuildings ofthe factory were two-storeybuildings. 13. vault [vo:lt] n v— свод; возводить свод vaulting n— свод, возведение свода
UNIT 2. GREAT CIVIL ENGINEERS 3 1 glassvaulting— стеклянный свод high-pitch vaulting — высокий свод Thevaultand the dome were evolved in the East. The center pieceofthislarge complex is a five-storeybrick house with internally cast-iron columns and brick vaulting. 14. concrete ['kor)kri:t] nadj—бетон; бетонный Concreteis capable ofwithstanding high temperatures. 15. truss[trAs]n—ферма steeltruss — стальная ферма It isnecessary to place trussesto carry the ends ofthe beams. 16. high rising (rise) building ['raizig] — высотное здание Ahigh-risebuildingisdefined as abuilding 35 meters orgreater in height, which isdivided into occupiable levels. 17 innovation [.mau'veijn] n—нововведение, новшество bringinnovations — вводить новшества innovative ['inaveitiv] adj—новаторский, передовой The new system in the university canteen was a welcome innovation. Som e innovations were brought to construction. A number of innovative fa3ade systems are available including composite panels. 18. develop [di'vetap] v — разрабатывать, развивать developmentn—развитие, разработка; застройка A laminate hasbeendevelopedwhich is suitable forboth inside and outside use. It has developedinto a very large city. He had some important developmentsin building construction. The new developmentmodifies an existing environment.
ill Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей UNIT 2. GREATCIVILENGINEERS 33 19 supportIsa'po-.t](iv - опора, поддерживать, подпирать Asimplebeam is one thatlieson twosupportsattheends Beams are used tosupport floors in buildings 20 locate [lau'keit] v — располагать, назначать место (syn.) place v — помещать, размещать The entrance to the house islocatedon the south side. The framesareplacedbetween end walls and spaced at 3metre centres. 2. Read aud translate the following international words. Look op their transcriptions in the dictionary if necessary. Mind the part of speech. 4. Match the noun(s) on the left with a suitable item on the right. U se each item once only. 1. A roofer 2. A broadcasting tower 3 Deformation 4. A steel truss 5.A vault 6. A grid shell 7.Theconstruction company 8.Steelbeams 9. V .G . Shukhov 10. M etal structures a. changes an object. b. is semicircular in shape. c. carry loads d. brought innovations. e. were erected. f. sends radio and TV signals. g.developed roofsystems. h. builds and repairs roofs. l. was pioneered by Shukhov. j. comprises triangular units. Architect n, analysis я, industrial adj, innovation n, gallery n, hyperboloid я, hyperbolic adj, calculation я, membrane я, optimal adj, theoretical adj, reservoir я, baige я, protection я, transmission я, cyhndncal adj, elite adj, arch я, arcade я, terminal я, onginally adv, gigantic adj, parabola n, grandiose adj, rotation я. 5. Replace the underlined words with the wordsbelow. a) flank b) roof c) support d) shell e) storey f) vaulting g) truss h) cause i) place j) innovation 3. Match the pairs of antonyms from A and В and translate them. A 1. improve 2 ngid 3. low rising building 4 straight 5 solid 6 regressive 7 stoppage 8. low -pitch vaulting В a. high rising building b. innovative c. high-pitch vaulting d. deform e. development f. tensile g. curve h. lattice 1 Only the framework of the building stood after the fire. 2 The wooden beams form a rigid structure to support a roof. 3 The survey examinedtheimpact ofcurrent modernizationwithin the construction industry. 4 . They installed a protective covering that forms the top ofthebuilding. 5 .They managed to solve the technical aspects ofdomingthatbuilding.6. Laigebeamsbearthe damaged wall.7 .Thisapproach may lead to the improvement in construction planning and managem ent. 8 . Hotels and rooming housesstill fine the streets in thistown. 9 .They decided to locate a new construction site just 30 miles from the city centre. 10. M any firms are likely to consider renovating or constructing m ulti-floor buildings.
ill Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей UNIT 2. GREATCIVILENGINEERS 33 19 supportIsa'po-.t](iv - опора, поддерживать, подпирать Asimplebeam is one thatlieson twosupportsattheends Beams are used tosupport floors in buildings 20 locate [lau'keit] v — располагать, назначать место (syn.) place v — помещать, размещать The entrance to the house islocatedon the south side. The framesareplacedbetween end walls and spaced at 3metre centres. 2. Read aud translate the following international words. Look op their transcriptions in the dictionary if necessary. Mind the part of speech. 4. Match the noun(s) on the left with a suitable item on the right. U se each item once only. 1. A roofer 2. A broadcasting tower 3 Deformation 4. A steel truss 5.A vault 6. A grid shell 7.Theconstruction company 8.Steelbeams 9. V .G . Shukhov 10. M etal structures a. changes an object. b. is semicircular in shape. c. carry loads d. brought innovations. e. were erected. f. sends radio and TV signals. g.developed roofsystems. h. builds and repairs roofs. l. was pioneered by Shukhov. j. comprises triangular units. Architect n, analysis я, industrial adj, innovation n, gallery n, hyperboloid я, hyperbolic adj, calculation я, membrane я, optimal adj, theoretical adj, reservoir я, baige я, protection я, transmission я, cyhndncal adj, elite adj, arch я, arcade я, terminal я, onginally adv, gigantic adj, parabola n, grandiose adj, rotation я. 5. Replace the underlined words with the wordsbelow. a) flank b) roof c) support d) shell e) storey f) vaulting g) truss h) cause i) place j) innovation 3. Match the pairs of antonyms from A and В and translate them. A 1. improve 2 ngid 3. low rising building 4 straight 5 solid 6 regressive 7 stoppage 8. low -pitch vaulting В a. high rising building b. innovative c. high-pitch vaulting d. deform e. development f. tensile g. curve h. lattice 1 Only the framework of the building stood after the fire. 2 The wooden beams form a rigid structure to support a roof. 3 The survey examinedtheimpact ofcurrent modernizationwithin the construction industry. 4 . They installed a protective covering that forms the top ofthebuilding. 5 .They managed to solve the technical aspects ofdomingthatbuilding.6. Laigebeamsbearthe damaged wall.7 .Thisapproach may lead to the improvement in construction planning and managem ent. 8 . Hotels and rooming housesstill fine the streets in thistown. 9 .They decided to locate a new construction site just 30 miles from the city centre. 10. M any firms are likely to consider renovating or constructing m ulti-floor buildings.
34 I Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей 6. Read and translate the following groups of sentences paying attention to the words in italics which can function as a noun and a verb, or a verb and an adjective, or a noun and an adjective, with the same form. They can have similar ordifferent meanings. Look up yourdictionary if necessary. 1. a . Did the speaker stressthe need forbetter education? b. Stresscan lead to the building collapsing. c. Theyplace too much stresson money and position. 2. a . He mentioned the causeofstructural failure. b.Thesefactscausean increaseinthe span ofthebeam. c. Don’t stay away withoutgood cause. 3. a . They should concretethegardenpath. b.Thiscausedthe expansion ofthe concretefloor. c. The walk was paved with concrete. 4. a . Beamsoflightpenetrated the darkness. b. The transmitter beamsradio waves all over the country. c. A frame consists of beams and columns with foundation. 5. a . Various materials can be used to construct a water tower. b. The high mountains towerover the little town. c. Piles were driven for a platform to support a tower crane. 7. Study the following patterns showing the ways some nouns are formed from verbs and adjectives, and some adverbs are formed from adjectives. Complete the charts. Some of the missing words are from the texts of the Unit. Read and translate them into Russian. U se your dictionary to help you with the pronunciation. Pattern 4 IVerb/Adjective +-ance/-ence -»Noun| The -ance/-ence suffixes are used foran action, or quality of something
UNIT 2.GREATCIVILENGINEERS Example, accept-принимать -> acceptance — принятие depend — зависеть -» dependence — зависимость resist appear elegant abundant important exist occur absent convenient different Pattern 5 Verb+-ure->Noun The -ure suffixis used for an act or condition ofsomething. Example,fail —разрушаться -> failure — разрушение depart disclo se please expose mix close Verb/Adjective Noun Verb Noun 2*
36 Английский лзы к д лл студентов строительных специальностей Pattern 6 I Adjective + -ly - » Adverb | Exampleexact — точный exactly — точно Adjective Adverb independent _______________ ____ correct ___________________ equal ___________________ cheap ___________________ obvious ___________________ proper ___________________ frequent _______ __ ________ _ rapid ___________________ SECTION 2 GRAMMAR 8. A. Complete the tense chart. Use the verb write for the Active Voice. ACTIVE Simple Continuous Present h e writes w e are writing Past Future Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect
UNIT2.GREATCIVILENGINEERS 37 B. Compare the following sentences and translate them. 1. They cleanthe office every day. They arecleaningthe office now. They havecleanedthe office for two hours. They have been cleaning the office for two hours 2 They cleaned the office yesterday. They havejust cleanedthe office. They were cleaning the office when the boss came. Theyhadcleanedthe office when the boss came. They hadbeencleaningthe office for two hours whenthebosscame.3 . 1think they willcleanthe office tomorrow. They willbecleaningthe office when the boss comes. They will havecleanedthe officebythe time the boss comes. They willhave beencleaningthe officefor two hours when the boss comes. 9. Write the following sentences in the negative form. Then change them to general, alternative, special (beginning with the question-words given in brackets) and tag questions. 1.They constructed two houseslast year. (When?What? How many? Who?) 2. My friends are building their own house now. (What? When? Who? Whose?) 3 He has known him for a long time. (Who? How Long?)4.The office usually closes at 7o’clock in the evening. (When? Whattime? What1****678)5.The chief engineer willbe visitingthe construction site in the suburbs ofthe town from 2o’clocktill4 o’clocktomorrow. (Where?When?Whattime?Who?) 6.Theyhadbuilta new hospitalbefore I came to thattown. (What? When?Who?)7.Thedesigner was using a computerinthe office at3o’clockyesterday.(Where?What? When?Whattime?Who?) 8. My fellow students will have their field training during the vacation. (When?What? Who?Whose?) 9.They willhavefinished constructionbythe end oftheyear. (What?When?Who?) 10.We havebeen developing this product fortwo years. (What? How long? Who?)
38 I Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей 10. Fill the gaps with the correct form of the verb. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. The number of people working in building construction _ _ _ _ _ (go down). 2 . The manufacture of these structures ._________ (grow) over severaldecades. 3 . 1am sure they__________ (offer) him a new job next week 4. By the mid-1990s, the country’s production ofbuilding materials_________ (double). 5. Technical requirements inbuilding construction_________ (grow) day to day now. 6 . They_________(take up) repairs for various roads last year. 7 The builder says h e _________ (finish) the roof bynext Saturday 8. They_________(make)products at the lowest possible cost at that time. 9. Many construction projects usually _________ (suffer) from financial problems. 1 0 .1 __________(work) at the plant for three yeas when my brother arrived. 11 . The company __________(make) new typesofproducts atthistime next year. 12.When Mr. Brown retires next year, he_________ (work) for this company for25 years. 11. Read and translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the predicates used in the Simple, Continuous, Perfect and Perfect Continuous forms.1 1. Abouttwo thousandphotos and negatives madebyVladimir G. Shukhovhave survived untilthisday. 2 .Theyhavebeen working out a new production plan fortwo weeks. 3 .Citieswillgrow, but the growth must be controlled. 4 .Vladimir G. Shukhov brought a lot of innovations to the oil industry and the construction of numerous bndges and buildings 5. They were conducting an interesting expenment on the construction site from 9 o’clocktill 12 o’clockyesterday.6 .Atpresent thisdepartment isconducting tests on new matenals. 7 .Afterthe exhibitionhad closed, the tower of rare beauty wasboughtbythe well-knownMaecenas andplaced m hisestate. 8 . Steeltrusses are clearlyvisible, and they demonstrate the elegance ofthe grandiosebuilding. 9 .VladimirG. Shukhov’s
UNIT2.GREATCIVILENGINEERS 39 innovative and exquisite constructions still grace many towns across Russia. 10 . The investigation has shown that, if properly used, tower cranes will effect considerable savings m building costs by avoiding the necessity for double handling of materials and by enabling largepieces of a structure to beprefabncated on the ground andthen hoisted into position 11.Hehasknown the chiefengineer for three years. 12. Read and translate the following sentences with used to (раньше, прежде, когда-то, в прошлом). Example Не usedtobe an engineer. — Когда-то он был инженером. 1. Building operations used to stop in very bad winter conditions. 2 . I used to have a car, but 1sold it. 3 .The factory usedto bein the citycentre. 4 .He used towork as a construction workerbefore he started his ownbusiness. 5 . Did he use to live in thattown whenhe was a child?6.1didn’t use to drive to work. SECTION 3 READING AND SPEAKING 13. What do you know about Vladimir G. Shukhov? Read the statements given below and say if they are right or wrong. If the statements are not right, make the necessary corrections. a) V.G . Shukhov developed hyperboloid structures. b) Based on the calculations ofthe optimal diameter and wall thickness ofpipelines, Shukhov designed the first Russian oil tanker. c) V.G . Shukhov contributed to the development of new architectural formsin Russia.
40 Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей d)Thefirsthypeiboloid structure in the world wasthe steellattice 37-meter tower built by V.G Shukhov for the 1896 All-Russia industnal and art exhibitioninNizhniy Novgorod. e) Petrovsky Passage, an elite department store, and the Kiyevsky RailTerminal m Moscow were designedbyV.G . Shukhov. 0 The Shukhov radio tower, also known as the Shabolovka tower, is not a hyperboloid structure. 14. Read Text 2A to find out ifyou are right or wrong. Use the introductory phrases given in Unit 1. • TEXT 2A Vladimir G. Shukhov Vladimir Grigoryevich Shukhov (1853— 1939) was a great Russian engineer, scientist and architect renowned for his pioneering works on new methods o f analysisfor structural engineenng that led to breakthroughs in industnal design. Besides the innovations he broughtto the oilindustry and theconstruction of numerousbridges and buildings, Shukhov wasthe inventorofa new familyofdoubly- curved structural forms. These forms based on non-Euclidean hyperbolic geometry are known today as hyperboloids of revolution. Shukhov developed not only many varieties of light-weight hyperboloid towers and roofsystems, but also the mathematics for their analysis. V.G Shukhov is referred as the Russian Edison He was one of the first to develop practical calculations of stresses and deformations ofbeams, shells and membranes on elasticfoundation. These theoretical results allowed him to design the first Russian oil tanker, new types of oil tanker barges, and oil reservoirs The
UNIT 2 . GREATCIVILENGINEERS 41 same principle of the shell on an elastic foundation allowed calculating the optimal diameter, wall thickness and fluid speed for the fluid pipelines. V G. Shukhov also left a lasting legacy to the Constructivist architecture of earlySoviet Russia. As aleading specialist of metallic structures (hyperboloid structures, thin-shell structures, tensile structures), he may be compared with G. Eiffel. Shukhov’s innovative and exquisite constructions stillgrace many towns across Russia. Forthe 1896All-Russia industnal and art exhibition in Nizhniy Novgorod V.G . Shukhov built the steel lattice 37-meter tower which became the first hyperboloid structure in the world. The astonishing hyperboloid steelgnd shellcauseddehghtofthe European specialists. Afterthe exhibition had closed,the tower of rarebeauty was bought by the well-known Maecenas of that time Yu.S . Nechayev-Maltsov andplaced in his estate Polibino, Lipetskoblast, where ithaspreserved untilnow underthe state protection. In the subsequentyears, Shukhovdeveloped numerous structures ofvanous hyperboloid steelgnd shells and used them in hundreds of water towers, sea lighthouses and supports forpowertransmission lines. The hyperboloid structures appeared abroad only 10 years after Shukhov’s invention. PetrovskyPassageisan elite department store openedinPetrovka Street in downtown Moscow in 1906.VladimirShukhovdesigned a covered arcade with two wide three-storey galleries covered with high-pitched semi-cylindrical glassvaulting. The second storeys of opposite galleries are connected by exquisitelydesigned ferroconcrete catwalks. In the 1990s, the shop was revamped asthe centre ofone ofthe most expensive shopping areasin Europe. The Kiyevsky RailTerminal is one ofthe nine railterminals of Moscow. The station was built between 1914 and 1918 m the Byzantine Revival style. Originally named the Bryansk Rail Terminal, itwas designedby Ivan Rerbeig andVladimirShukhov; itisconsidered animportantlandmark ofarchitecture and engineenng ofthe time. The station building isflanked by a gigantic landing
42 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей platform which is distinguished by its simplicity and constructive boldness. The platforms arecovered by massiveglassed arch structures intheform ofaparabola. Open-work steeltrusses areclearlyvisible, and they demonstrate the elegance ofthegrandiosebuilding. The Shukhov radiotower, alsoknown astheShabolovka tower, isabroadcasting tower in Moscow designed byV. Shukhov. The 160-metre-high free-standing steel structure was built in the period of 1919 — 1922. It is a hyperboloid structure. Due to its lattice structure the steelshelloftheShukhov Towerexperiences minimum wind load (the main hazard forhigh-rising buildings). The tower sections are single-cavity hyperboloids ofrotation made ofstraight beams, the ends of which rest against circular foundations. The towerislocated afew kilometers south oftheMoscow Kremlin. Shukhov is also reputed forhis originaldesigns of more than 180bridges across the Volga, Yenisey, Dnieper, and other rivers. 15. Find in Text 2A the paragraph saying about the structure of the Shukhov radio tower and translate it into Russian. 16. Read aloud paragraphs 2 and 3 ofText 2A. 17. Explain the following references. a) Theseformsbased on non-Euclidean hyperbolic geometry are known today ashyperboloidsofrevolution. What does the demonstrative adjective thesereferto? b) V. Shukhov developed the mathematics for theiranalysis. Whatdoesthepronoun theirreferto? c) V.G . Shukhov is referred to as the Russian Edison. Who is Edison referred to? d) he maybecompared with G.Eiffel. Who is G.Eiffelreferred to? e) itisconsidered an important landmark ofarchitecture and engineering ofthe time. Whatdoesthepronoun itreferto?
UNIT 2 . GREATCIVILENGINEERS 43 f) Th. station building is flankedby agigantic landing platform which isdistinguishedbyitssimplicity and constructive boldness Whatdoes thepronoun itsreferto? 18. FindinText 2A some key words and expressions to speak about V.G . Shukhov’s innovations in building engineering and architecture. Retell the Text in English. 19. Skim Text 2B “V.G . Shukhov’s Biography” and try to understand what it is about and what information is new to you. • TEXT 2B V.G . SHUKHOV 'S BIOGRAPHY VladimirShukhov wasbom inthetown ofGraivoron, Belgorod uyezd, Kursk gubemiya (in present-day Belgorod oblast) into a petty noble family. His father Grigory Shukhov was a minor governmentofficial,promoted forhis effortsintheCrimeanWar. ForawhileGrigory served as Mayor ofGraivoron and later asan administrator in Warsaw In 1864Vladimir entered St. Petersburg gymnasium from which he graduated with distinction in 1871 During his high school years he showed mathematical talents, once demonstrating to his classmates and teacher an originalproofof the Pythagorean theorem. The teacher praised his skillsbut he failed the grade for violating the guidelines of the textbook. After graduating from the gymnasium, Shukhov entered the Imperial Moscow TechnicalSchoolin whichhisteachers mcluded Pafnuty Chebyshev, Aleksey Letnikov, and Nikolay Zhukovsky. In 1876 Shukhov graduated from the school with distinction and a Gold Medal. Chebyshev proposed him a job as a lecturerin mathematics atthe Imperial
44 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей Moscow TechnicalSchool,but Shukhov decided to seek ajobin the industry instead. ThereuponShukhov wentto Philadelphiato work on the Russian pavilion attheWorld’s Fairandto studytheinner workings ofthe Amencan industry. During his stay in the US Shukhov came to know a Russian-Amencan entrepreneur, AlexanderBari who also worked on the organization ofthe Fair. In 1877 Shukhov returned to Russia and joined the drafting office of the Warsaw-Vienna railroad. Within several months, Shukhov’s frustration with standard and routine engineenng made him abandon the office andjoin a military-medical academy. On hiscoming to Russiain 1877,Banpersuaded Shukhov to give up hismedical education and to assume the office ofChiefEngineerin a new company specializing in innovative engineenng. Shukhov worked with Ban forthis company until the OctoberRevolution Their works revolutionized many areas ofcivil engineering, ship engineenng, and oil industry.The thermal cracking method,the Shukhov cracking process, was patented byVladimirShukhov in 1891 Shukhov always found time for a passionate hobby — photography. The photographic works of Shukhov opened new trends ahead oftheirflourishing offine art photography. He made photos in vanous genres: city landscape, portrait, constructivism. Abouttwo thousand photosand negatives madebyShukhov have survived until this day. After the October Revolution Shukhov decided to stay in the Soviet Union despite having received alluringjob offersfrom around the world. Many signal Soviet engineering projects ofthe 1920s were associated with his name. In 1919heframed his slogan: “We should work independently from politics. Thebuildings, boilers, beams are needed and so are we” . In the later 1930s he retired from engineenng work. Shukov died on February 2, 1939 in Moscow and wasbuned atthe NovodevichyCemetery
UNrT2.GREATCIVILENGINEERS 45 20. Identify the topic of each paragraph of Text 2B. 21. Answer the following questions. a) Where was V.G . Shukhov born9 b)What familywas hebom into? c) Why did the high school teacherpraise Vladimir’s skills? d) Did V.G . Shukhov work as alecturer in mathematics atthe ImperialMoscow TechnicalSchool? e) Why did V.G . Shukhov go to Philadelphia? f) What innovationsdid V.G . Shukhov bring to civil and ship engineenng, working with Ban9 g)What was V.G . Shukhov’s hobby? h) Did Shukhov receive anyjob offersfrom around the world? 22.ReadText2C “John Smeaton — theFirstCivilEngineer” and answer the questions. Discuss your answers with your groupm ates. a) Why isJohn Smeaton regarded as the father ofthe civil engineenngprofession? b)What was John Smeaton’s research into powersources? c)WhatwasJohnSmeatoncharged withbythePresidentofthe Royal Society? d)What were JohnSmeaton’sdevelopments inthe field ofthe engineering use ofcement and concrete? e) Why is the depth of John Smeaton’s influence on civil engineeringphenomenal? f)WhydidJohn Smeaton wantpractisingprofessional engineers to dine together? g)What led to the founding ofthe Intuition ofCivil Engineers?
46 IАнглийский язык для студентов строительных специальностей • TEXT 2С John Smeaton — the First Civil Engineer В John Smeaton firstdescribed himselfas a civil engineer m 1768. In doing so, he identified a new profession that was distinct from that ofthe military engineerswho, since ancienttimes, had undertaken the construction of all public infrastructure. Thus, at the time, civil engineering encompassed all non-m ilitary engineering. Although in 1847, after a frenzy of railway construction, mechanical engineering bifurcated from civil engineering as an independent discipline. An innovative and intelligent man, Smeaton remains one of the most revered professionals of engineering and is regarded as the father ofthe civil engineering profession. The son of a Yorkshire lawyer, John Smeaton was born in 1724, in Austhorpe, Leeds, UK . Before his 16th birthday, while still at school, his talent for engineering and use of mechanical toolspossessed him to assemble aturning-lathe. Smeaton proceeded to become an instrument-maker. His research into windmills, watermills and other sources of power resulted, in 1754, in a systematic set of scientific expenments that made it clearthat an overshot waterwheelis more efficient than an undershot wheel. In 1756the President ofthe Royal Societyfamouslychaiged Smeaton withthe construction ofthe Eddystone Lighthouse, a structure required to warn shipsawayfrom the Eddystone rocks, 14miles southwest of Plymouth. Smeaton’s design, which remains a symbol of the profession, was completed in 1759 and lasted until 1881. Smeaton’s industry resulted in two developmentsthat made an important contribution to the success ofthe Eddystone Lighthouse. First, he used a new kind ofinterlocking stone construction, and second, he developed a water-resistant (hydraulic) mortar to bind the blocks togetherby mixingblue lime and pozzolamc material
UNIT 2 . GREATCIVILENGINEERS from Italy. Smeaton’s observation that thebest hydraulic cements were those madefrom limestone containing certainproportions of clayey material are regarded asthe starting point ofthe modem engineering use ofcement and concrete. Today Smeaton remains one of civil engineering heavy­ weights — thebreadth anddepth ofhisinfluence arephenomenal. In his career, Smeaton designed the first successful Eddystone Lighthouse, greatly improved on Newcomen’s steam engine, and designed windmills, watermills, canals and bridges. JohnSmeaton died onthe28October, 1792. Hisenduring legacy ismore than the engineering works, some ofwhich remain as monumentstothegreatmanhimself.Notonly is he widely regarded as the founder of the civil engineering profession, buthis methods ofconstruction site management and supervision are stillin use today.John Smeaton clearlyunderstood that managing people correctly was as important as design and construction. It was Smeaton’s desire that practising professional engineers should dine together — so that they mightgetto know one another better and thereby avoid potential hostility that might arise in their public dealings — that spawned the formation ofthe Society ofCivil Engineers in 1771. While the Society remains as a social society today, it is true that the conceptofco-operation in competitionbetween engineers led to the founding ofthe Institution ofCivil Engineers in 1818. 23. Listen to theText “The FatheroftheAmerican Skyscraper” about the American civil engineer and architect William Le Baron Jenney. Study thefollowing commentary. theLeiterBuilding — здание магазинафирмы “Лейтер” t SECTION 4 LISTENING AND SPEAKING
48 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей a) Answer the questions that follow. 1.When and where wasWilliamJenneyborn7 2.Wheredidhebeginhisformal education7 3.WhydidhemovetoPans7 4. Who was his classmate? 5.Where did William Jenneybegin his own architectural office? 6.What building isJenney most famousfor? 7 What is the design ofthisbuilding7 8.What methoddidhe useto reduce theweightofthebuilding? 9. How did he solvethe problem offireproofconstruction? b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 2A of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about William Jenney. d) Tellyour groupmates about some otherAmerican or British civil engineers and architects you know. 24. Listen to the Text “Nikolai V. Nikitin”. a) You will hear the numbers given below in the chart. Say what these numbers refer to. 1907 1930 1932 1937 1957 3 1973 240 1949 1953 85 540 1963 1967 500 42 b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 2B of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text.
UNIT 3 JOBS IN CONSTRUCTION Ш SECTION 1 VO CABULARY AND WORD STUDY 1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary to the text “Occupations in the Construction Industry” and translate the given sentences. 1. occupy['akjupai] v— занимать (помещение и т п.) occupation [pkju'peijn] п—род занятий, профессия trade — профессия, ремесло; производство, промыш­ ленность trade worker(labourer) — промышленный рабочий constructiontrade worker — строительныйрабочий The family occupied a small flat. Please state your name, address, and occupation. The building industry comprises skilled and unskilled workers in many trades. Having completed the preparation ofthe site, thetrade workersbegin the initial stage 2. contractor [kan'traskta] n— подрядчик constructioncontractor — строительный подрядчик general contractor — генеральный подрядчик subcontractor LsAbkan'traekta] n — субподрядчик Thecontractorshould also be aware of all thesubcontractors so that thebest sequence ofbuilding operations canbe secured.
5 0 Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей 3. sewer ['s(j)u.s] ѵ — канализационный коллектор sewerage ['s(j)u:9rid3] п — канализационная система install a sewerage system — прокладывать (устанавли­ вать) канализационную систему The removal of all kind of liquid waste is usually done by means o f sewers which are a part of a sewerage system. 4. relate (to) [ri'leit] v — относиться, иметь отношение closely related —тесно связанный The form of a building component is related to the way in which it is used Air-conditioning is closely related to ventilation. 5. carpentry ['ka:pantri] — плотничье дело, плотничьи ра­ боты carpenter ['kccpsnta] п — плотник, столяр The coming of the Iron Age brought tools which made possible the developm ent o f carpentry. A carpenter checks vertical and horizontal work. 6. plumbing І'рілтіг)] n — водопроводная система plumber ['ріл т э] n — водопроводчик Great technological advances have been made in plumbing. As soon as theplumbers have finished their work, the carpenters begin. 7 schedule ['Jedju:l] n — график, режим (работы), распи­ сание complete a job on schedule — закончить работу по гра­ фику The building was completed on schedule. 8. plaster ['pla:sta] n v — штукатурка; штукатурить apply plaster — наносить штукатурку plasterer n — штукатур
UNIT3.JOBSINCONSTRUCTION 51 A float (мастерок) is a tool for smoothing theplaster on a wall. Theplasterer usually shows up after all the internal walls were built. 9. reinforce [,ri:in'f3:s] v — укреплять, усиливать reinforcementn—арматура, армирование, укрепление Toreinforceordinary concrete structures is to introduce steel rods. There are two kinds of reinforced concrete: with ordinary reinforcementand concrete with prestressed reinforcement. 10. site n— место работ, территория строительства construction (building)site — стройплощадка Thesiteforthe new factory has notbeen decided.Thebuilding materialsproduced are transported to theconstructionsites. 11. order ['o:da] nv — заказ; порядок; приказ; заказывать obtain an order [sb'tein] — получать заказ inorderto — для того, чтобы Your orderis nearly ready. The house is in good order. They orderedsome new finishing materials. Careful thought had to be given to the composition ofthe plastic inordertomake itfireproof. 12. employ[im'pbi] v— нанимать (наработу);использовать employer[inTpbia] и — наниматель, работодатель Only high quality cement should be employedfor reinforced concrete work. He asked his employerfor a pay rise. 13.hang (wall)paper — оклеивать обоями paperbanger — оклейщик обоев Mywife wants tohangpaperson the wall but I would ratherpaint them. Paperhangers,like mostpersons who work in the decorating industry, tend to have an eye for colour, texture, and form.
52 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 14. mason ['meisn] п— каменщик; производить кладку brickmason — каменщик masonry ['meisnri] п— кирпичная или каменная кладка Skilled labouris required forgood stone masonryconstruction because the defects leftby a careless mason cannot be rectified easily. 15. supervise['s(j)u:pavaiz] v— наблюдать, контролировать supervision [,s(j)u:p3'vin3n] n— надзор, контроль supervisorn —бригадир,руководитель работ superintendent [,s(j)u:p3rin'tend3nt] n — управляющий, руководитель, заведующий He supervisedthe labourers on the construction site. He can only operate the machine under supervision. The supervisor will showyouhowto workthe machine. Thesupenntendant\sincharge ofbuilding. 16. varnish['vQ-.nif]v — лак, олифа; покрывать лаком stain лѵ— краска; протрава, морилка; красить; протрав­ лять Varnishplays an important role in finishing wooden surfaces. Painted surfaces arevarnishedto enhance their appearance ofthe paint. Stainisused to changethe colour ofvarioustypesofcheap quality wood. The wooden doors werestainedbrown. 17. partition [pa:'tijn] — перегородка, внутренняя стена Partitionsseparate space from space. 18. glaze [gleiz] v — вставлять стекла, застеклять glazier['діешэ] n— стекольщик Therearedifferenttypesofglazingcompoundsthat can be used toglazewindows. Theheating contractor works at the same time as the glaziers.
UNIT3. JOBSINCONSTRUCTION 53 19 insulate ['insjuleit] v — изолировать insulation [,insju'leijn] n — изоляция, изоляционный материал Many housescouldbe warmerifthey wereinsulatedagainst heat loss. Mud was used forfilling the spacesbetween bricks and acted as concrete and insulation. 20. finish ЛѴ- отделка поверхности (результат); отделы­ вать applyfinishes — отделывать поверхность finishing materials — отделочные материалы Builders often finish surfaces m plastic materials. The natural finishesofmatenalsprovide the decorative effect The factory shows some very interesting uses offinishingmaterials. 2. Read and translate the following international words. Look up their transcriptions in the dictionary if necessary. Mind the part of speech. Segment n, general adj, residential adj, commercial adj, infrastructure n, tunnel n, coordinate v, specialize v, portion л, panel n, electrician n, communication n, select v, decorative adj, interior n adj, exterior n adj, asphalt n, thermoplastic n, column n, form v, excavation n, assist v, code n, organizational adj, phase n. 3. Match the words with the definitions below. a) plumber b)paper hanger c) supervisor d) contractor e) employer f) trade worker g) glazier h)plasterer l) mason j) carpenter
5 4 Английский язы к для студентов строительных специальностей 1. а person who manages 2. a worker skilled at applying plaster 3. a person who gives a job to others 4. a person skilled at making and repairing wooden objects 5. a person who cuts and fits glass 6. a person skilled at sticking wallpaper on the walls o f a room 7. a person who builds or works with stone or brick 8. a person or firm that promises to do work at a fixed rate 9. a skilled worker 10. a person whose job is to fit and repair water pipes, bathroom apparatus, etc 4. Match the English word combinations with the Russian equivalents. 1. to complete on schedule 2. to build a partition 3. to reinforce masonry 4. to apply a varnish 5. to install insulation 6. to supervise a project 7. to install sewerage 8. to relate to construction 9. to apply finishes 10. to apply plaster 11 to select an occupation 12. to glaze a window a. армировать кладку b. руководить проектом c. отделывать поверхность d. относиться к строительству e. выбирать профессию Г закончить по графику g. наносить штукатурку h. застеклять окно i. устраивать изоляцию j. построить перегородку k. прокладывать канализацию l. нанести лаковое покрытие 5. Read and translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the meaning of the words and word combinations given below. I. a) finish v — отделывать b) finish n — отделка поверхности c) finisher n — рабочий-отделочник
UNIT3.JOBSINCONSTRUCTION 55 d)finishing nadj—окончательная отделка; отделочный e)finished adj— обработанный I. The wood has a beautiful finish. 2 . The finished surface must have a uniform appearance. 3.They showed two good ways to insulate and finish a foundation wall. 4 . Sensitive people with allergies or respiratory conditions often request certain finishing materials. 5 .A finisherperforms the last step in a manufacturing process. 6 .Afterallthe interiorfinishing isdoneinstallthe carpet so thatthereisnodamagedoneto it. II. a) order v — заказывать; приказывать b)ordern — заказ; приказ; порядок c)inorderthat—стем,чтобы d)inorderto — для того, чтобы e) out of order — неисправный 1. Thiscompanyisone ofthe very fewplaceswhereyou can place an orderforlumber and related building materials on-line. 2. The house isingood order. 3.We orderhighquantitiesat our suppliers in order not to run out of material during a building phase. 4 .You willhave to obey my orders. 5. In order to give timber a new chance as a construction material, the different research development and marketingprograms should aim atquick usage ofthe new techniques in timber engineering construction. 6. Themachineisout oforder. 7 .He ordered me to stand up. 8. She checked allherfiguresin orderthatthe report mightbe as accurate aspossible. III. a) site n — участок, место(положение) b)onsite — на строительной площадке c) website — сайт вИнтернете d)site v — располагать, выбирать место 1.Protectivehelmets mustbe worn on site. 2 .Thecompanyis trying to decide whereto site the newfactory.3 .Shehas ajob on
Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей а building site. 4. The site for the new factory has not been decided yet. 5. Visit o ur website to check out the latest deals on building materials. 6. Students in this major prepare for careers managing and inspecting construction sites and buildings. 6. Read and translate the following word combinations which come from the texts of the Unit. Mind the use of nouns as attributes in preposition. Look up your dictionary if necessary. Construction industry, civil engineering construction contractors, trade contractors, construction trade workers, brick masons, insulation workers, first-line supervisors and managers, construction management occupations, field manager, waste water treatment plants, design and construction processes, specialty trade contractor, conceptual development stage, site preparation, construction site activities. 7. Study the following patterns showing the ways some nouns are formed from verbs and adjectives. Complete the charts with nouns of the following verbs. Some o f the missing words are from the texts of the Unit. Read and translate them into Russian. Use your dictionary to help you with the pronunciation. Pattern 7 Verb + -age -» Noun The -age suffix is used for an action, result, or cost of something. Example, cover — покрывать -> coverage — покрытие, охват Verb Noun sew ___ ___ ____ ___ ___ _ break ___ ____ ___ ___ ___ _
UNITВ. JOBSINCONSTRUCTION 57 store stop waste pack use Pattern 8 Verb + -al —>Noun The -al suffix is used for an action o f something. Example, renew — обновлять -н> renewal — обновление Verb Noun remove _________________ dismiss _________________ deny _________________ arrive Pattern 9 Verb + -ant -> Noun The -ant suffix is used for a person o r thing that does an activity. Example: assist — помогать —>assistant — помощ ник Verb Noun consult _________________ occupy _________________
58 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей inhabit account Pattern 10 I Adjective+ -ity-» Noun~| The -ity suffix is used for quality. Example,complex — сложный -» complexity — сложность Adjective Noun a c tiv e ______________________ p r o d u c t i v e ______________________ f a t a l ______________________ secure _____________ _________ fo r m a l ______________________ diverse creative ______________________ familiar _____________ _________ responsible _____________ _ ________ a b l e ______________________ electnc ____________
UNIT 3 . JOBS IN CONSTRUCTION 5 9 SECTION 2 GRAMMAR 8. A. Complete the tense chart. Use the verb make for the Passive Voice. PASSIVE Simple Continuous Present it is made th ey are being made Past it it Future they Present Perfect they Past Perfect it FuturePerfect they B. Compare the following pairs ofthe sentences and translate them (Active Voice vs. Passive Voice). 1. They often discuss this film. This film is being discussed now. 2 . They have discussedthis film for two hours. This film has been discussed for tw o hours. 3 . They discussed this film yesterday. The film was discussed yesterday. 4 . They have just discussedthis film. This film Aasjust beendiscussed. 5 . They were discussingthis film when she came. This film was beingdiscussed when she came. 6 . They haddiscussedthis film when she came The film hadbeendiscussedwhen she came. 7 . I think they will discussthis film tom orrow. This film willbediscussedtomorrow. 8. They willhavediscussedthis film by the time she comes. The film willhavebeendiscussedby the time she comes. 9. Rewrite the active sentences as passive ones and translate Example My relatives are constructingthe house. — The house isbeing constructedby my relatives
6 0 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 1 General contractors build residential, industrial and commercial buildings. 2 . They were specializing in one type of construction at that time 3.They havejust obtained some orders for their work from the general contractor 4 The electricians installed the building electncal systems last week. 5 . The insulation workershad covered structures with insulating matenalsby the end ofthe week. 6. The plumbers are maintaining manydifferent types ofpipe systems now. 7. The plasterers will apply concrete to extenor wallsin a week 8 They willhaveplanned thejobbythe end of the month 10. Complete the following sentences. Use the passive form (Simple, Continuous or Perfect) of the verbs in the brackets. 1. The work_______(execute) in team now. 2 . The first buildings _________ (construct) by hand or with simple tools. 3 By 1993, 1.5 million council houses_________ (sell) in Great Bntain. 4 . The components_________ (prefabncate), including all weldedjoints, by the time the construction begins. 5 . In the near future, thepresent structure ofBuildingConstruction studies _________ (modify) by the implementation of Bologna Process. 6. Technical changesin thebuilding industry_______(stimulate) bylargehousingprogramsin the recent years. 7 . Thehotel_________ (build)on the edge ofthe lake atthat timelastyear. 8 . Construction workers_________ (employ) in the construction industry and work predominatelyon construction sites. 11. Read and translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the predicates used in the Passive Voice. A ) Example Atmost universitiesthe academicyearisdividedinto three terms. — Вбольшинствебританскихуниверситетовучебный голраз­ делен/делится натри семестра.
UNIT3.JOBSINCONSTRUCTION 61 1. Construction is usually done or coordinated by general contractors. 2. The building materials have been delivered to the construction site on time 3.Decisions regardingdaily construction activities willbe made at thejobsite. 4 . Management of overseas construction projects usually entails temporary residence in the country in which the project isbeing carried out. 5 . The sites and vehicles had been protected by signs and barricades. B ) Example He wasoffereda newjob. — Ему предложили новую работу. 1. Thecarpenter will be shown whatto do. 2.The supervisor is usually brought papers to sign at 4 o’clock in the afternoon 3. The trade worker has been asked to bring the tools. 4 They were met at the railway station by theirfriends. 5.The plumber was told to finish his work on time. C ) Example The painting was attentively lookedgt. — Накартину внима­ тельно смотрели. 1. Thebrick mason was sentforashe wastheonly oneto do thatjob. 2 . Each student was spoken to separately. 3 .This author was referred to in that journal. 4 . This building method will be dealt with at the next stage of construction. 5 .The finaldecision was arrived at aftertwo hours’ discussion. 12. Read and translate the following sentences with emphatic inversion. 1. Included in thisdevelopment ofindividuals arebasic technical skills coupled with an understanding ofthe economic and social process that influences the building industry. 2 . Attached to the office building are a laboratory, a workshop and a canteen. 3. Completed properly and expeditiously is every phase of the project. 4 .Neverbefore had we received such results. 5 .Working at thisdesign are many consultant experts.
62 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей SECTION 3 READING AND SPEAKING 13. Before reading Text ЗА“Occupations in the Construction Industry”, discuss thesequestions with your groupmates orteacher. a) What segments istheconstruction industrydividedinto? b) What are thegeneral contractors’ responsibilities? c) What is the difference between a general contractor and a specialty trade contractor? d) What areas ofthe construction industry are construction trades workers employed in0 e) Who assists construction trades workers? 0 What are construction managers’duties? g) Who is responsiblefor completing aproject on schedule? 14. Read Text ЗА to find out ifyou are right or wrong. Use the introductory phrases given in Unit 1. • TEXT ЗА Occupations in the Construction Industry The construction industry isdivided into three major segments. Theconstmction ofbuildings segment includes contractors called general contractors who build residential, industrial, commercial, and other buildings. Heavy and civil engineering construction contractors build sewers, roads, highways, bridges, tunnels, and otherprojects related to infrastructure. Specialty trade contractors perform specialized activities related to all types ofconstruction such as carpentry, painting, plumbing, and electrical work. Construction isusuallydone orcoordinated bygeneral contractors who specialize in one type of construction such as residential or commercialbuilding. They takefull responsibility forthe complete job, except forspecifiedportions ofthe workthat maybe omitted
UNIT3.JOBSINCONSTRUCTION 63 from the general contract. Although general contractors maydo aportion ofthework with their own crews, they often subcontract most ofthe work to heavy construction or specialty trade contractors. Specialty trade contractors usually do the work of onlyone trade, such as painting, carpentry, or electrical work, oroftwoormorecloselyrelated trades, such asplumbing and heating. Beyondfittingtheir work tothat ofthe other trades, specialty trade contractors have no responsibilityfor the structure as a whole. They obtain orders for their work from general contractors, architects, or property owners. Construction trades workers are employed in a large variety of occupations that are involved in all aspects of the construction industry. Bnck masons build and repair walls, floors, partitions and other structures with bnck, panels, concrete block, stone, and othermasonry matenals. Carpenters construct, erect, install, or repair structures made of wood, such as partitions, putting in doors and windows, building stairs, and laying floors. Electncians install, connect, test, and maintain building electrical systems which can also include lighting, climate control, security, and communications. Glaziers are responsible for selecting, cutting, installing, replacing, and removing all types of glass. Insulation workersline and cover structures with insulating materials. Painters and paperhangers stain, varnish, and apply other finishes to buildings and other structures and apply decorative coverings to walls and ceilings. Plumbers install, maintain, and repair many different types ofpipe systems. They may also install heating and cooling equipment and mechanical control systems. Plasterers apply plaster, concrete, and similar matenals to intenor and exterior
64 IАнглийскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей walls and ceilings. Roofers repair and install roofs made of tar or asphalt and gravel, rubber or thermoplastic, metal or shingles. Reinforcing iron and metal workers place and install iron or steel girders, columns, and other structural members to form completed structures or frameworks of buildings, bridges, and other structures. Lastly, construction labourers perform a wide range of physicallydemanding tasks at construction sites, such as excavation, waste removal, and demolition. Many construction trades workers perform their services with the assistance ofhelpers. These workers assist trades workers and perform duties requiring less skill. First-line supervisors and managers ofconstruction trades and extraction workers oversee trades workers and helpers and ensure that work is done well, safely, and according to the code. They plan the job and solve problems as they arise. Those with good oiganizational skills and exceptional supervisory ability may advance to construction management occupations, including project manager, field manager or superintendent. These workers are responsibleforgetting a project completed on schedule byworking with the architect’s plans, making sure that materials are delivered on time, assigning work, overseeing craft supervisors, and ensuring that every phase of the project is completed properly and expeditiously They also resolve problems and make sure that work proceeds without interruptions. 15. Find in Text ЗА the paragraph describing different construction trades workers’ occupations and translate it into 16. Read aloud paragraphs 2-3 . 17. Explain the following references. a) theyoften subcontract most ofthe work to heavy construction or specialty trade contractors. Whatdoes thepronoun theyreferto?
и ш 3. JOBS IN CONSTRUCTION 65 b) They often obtain orders for their work from general contractors, architects, or property owners Whatdoesthepronountheyreferto? c) Theseworkers assist trade workers . What does the demonstrative adjective theserefer to? d) Theyalso resolveproblems and make surethat workproceeds without interruptions. Whatdoesthepronoun theyreferto? e) Theymay also install heating and cooling equipment Whatdoesthepronountheyreferto? 18. Underline or mark the main ideas ofText ЗА and retell it in English. 19. Skim Text 3B “Construction Managers” and try to understand what it is about and what inform ation is new to you. • TEXT 3B Construction Managers Construction managersplan, direct, coordinate, and budget a wide variety of construction projects, including the building of all types of residential, commercial, and industnal structures, roads, bridges, wastewater treatment plants, and schools and hospitals. Construction managers may supervise an entireproject orjustpart of one. They schedule and coordinate alldesign and construction processes, including the selection, hinng, and oversight of specialty trade contractors, such as carpentry, plumbing, or electrical, but they do not usuallydo any actual construction ofthe structure. Construction managers are managers who oversee construction supervisors and personnel. They are often called project managers, 3 Зак 312
бб I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей constructors, construction superintendents, project engineers, construction supervisors, or general contractors. These managers coordinate and supervisethe construction process from theconceptualdevelopment stagethroughfinal construction, making surethattheprojectgets completed on time and within the budget. They often work with engineers, architects, and others who are involved in theprocess. Given the designs forbuildings, roads, bridges, or otherprojects, construction managers supervise the planning, scheduling, and implementation ofthose designs. Large construction projects, such as an officebuilding or an industnal complex, are often too complicated for oneperson to manage. Accordingly, these projects are divided into various segments: site preparation, including clearing and excavation of the land, installing sewage systems, and landscaping and road construction; building construction, including laying foundations and erecting the structural framework, floors, walls, and roofs; and building systems, including protecting against fire and installing electrical, plumbing, and air-conditioning systems. Construction managers maybein chaigeofone or severalofthese activities. Construction managersdetermine thebest wayto get materials to the site and the most cost-effective plan for completing the project. They divide all required construction site activities into logical steps, estimating and budgeting the time required to meet established deadlines. Doing this may require sophisticated scheduling and cost-estimating techniques using computers with specialized software. Construction managers also manage the selection ofgeneral contractors and trade contractorsto complete specificphasesofthe project which could include everything from structural metalworking and plumbing to painting, installing electricity and carpeting. Construction managers determine the labour requirements of the project and, in some cases, supervise the hiring and dismissal ofworkers. They oversee theperformance of alltrade contractors
UNIT 3 . JOBS IN CONSTRUCTION 6 7 and are responsible for ensuring that all work is completed on schedule. Construction managers direct and monitor the progress of construction activities through construction supervisors or other construction managers They are responsible for obtaining all necessary licenses and, depending upon the contractual arrangements, for directing or monitoring in compliance with building and safety codes, other regulations, and requirements set by the project insurers. They also oversee the delivery and use of materials, tools, and equipment, workers’safety and productivity, and the qualityofthe construction. Working out of a main office or out of afield office at the construction site, construction managers monitor the overall construction project. Decisions regarding daily construction activities aregenerallymade atthejobsite. Managers mighttravel considerablywhen the construction site is not close to their main office or when they are responsible for activities attwo or more sites. Management ofoverseas construction projects usuallyentails temporary residence in the country in which theproject isbeing earned out. 20. Find in Text 3B the information about construction managers’ duties and responsibilities in the following areas and describe them: a)designprocess coordination; b) supervision of a project; c) contractural arrangements; d)personnel’s selection and overseeing; e) construction site activities. 21. Say whetheryou agree or disagree with the views expressed inText 3B. Prove your points of view. 3*
68 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 22. Read Text ЗС “Construction Site Safety” and find the answers to these questions. Discuss your answers with your groupmates or teacher. a) Why isconstruction considered to be the most dangerous working area? b) Whyisitdifficultto control work environment? c) What are the main safetyhazards on site? d) Who is regarded as a non-worker? e) What are safety signs and barricades urgently required at construction sites? f) What regulations and organizationsplace requirements on employers to protect workers’safety? • TEXT 3C Construction Site Safety Construction isthe mostdangerous landbased work sectorin Europe (thefishingindustrybeing moredangerous). In the European Union, the fatal accident rate is nearly 13workersper 100,000 as against 5 per 100,000 for the all sector average. In the U.S . there were 1,225 fatal occupationalinjuriesin the construction sector in 2001 with an incidence rate of 13.3 per 100,000 employed workers. For the same year the construction industry experienced 481,400 nonfatal injuries and illnesses at a rate of7.9per 100full-time workersin theindustiy. Construction has about 6% of U.S . workers, but 20% of the fatalities — the largest number offatalities reported for any industiy sector. Theproblem isnotthat thehazards and risks are unknown, itis thatthey are verydifficultto control in a constantlychanging work environment. The leading safetyhazards on site are fallsfrom height, motor vehicle crashes, electrocution, machines, and being struck by falling objects. Some of the main health hazards on site are asbestos, solvents, noise, and manual handling activities.
UNIT 3 . JOBS IN CONSTRUCTION Many construction sitescannot completelyexclude non-workers. Road construction sites must often allow traffic to pass through. Thisplaces non-workers at some degree of nsk. Road construction sites are blocked-off and traffic is redirected. The sites and vehicles are protected by signs and barricades. However, sometimes even these signs and barricades can be a hazard to vehicle traffic. For example, improperly designed barricades can cause cars that stnkethem to roll over or even be thrown into the air. Even a simple safety sign can penetrate the windshield or roofofa carifhitfrom certain angles. Under European Union Law, there are European Union Directives in place to protect workers, notably Directive 89/391 (the Framework Directive) and Directive 92/57 (the Temporary and Mobile Sites Directive). This legislation is transposed into the MemberStates and places requirements on employers and others to assessand protect workers’health and safety. In the United States the Occupational Safety and Health Administration sets and enforcesthe standards concerning workplace safety and health. 23. Listen to the Text “Construction Careers”. a) Answer the questions that follow. 1. Are construction careers the sameindifferent countries? 2. What is thefirst tier ofconstruction careers characterized by? 3. Whatisspecific ofthe second tier ofconstruction careers? 4. What isthe third tier ofconstruction careersbased on? 5. How are furthereducation qualifications obtained in Britain? 6. How many construction-related apprenticeships were commenced in Britain in2007? 7.Whatprofessions require more legal responsibility? * SECTION 4 LISTENING AND SPEAKING
7 0 Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript ЗА of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about different construction careers. d) Tell your groupmates about any construction career your relatives or friends made. 24. Listen to the Text "Construction Engineers” . a) As you listen, make notes under the following headings. 1 The areas in which construction engineers are involved. 2. The design of structures in the 19th - 21st centuries 3 Construction engineers’ role on the building site 4, Construction engineers’ skills. b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 3B of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about construction engineers’ responsibilities.
UNIT 4 A LIVING PLACE ffl SECTION 1 VOCABULARY AND WORD STUDY 1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary to the text “Building Styles” and translate the given sentences. 1. range ['reintfe] n v — ряд, серия, диапазон, интервал, предел; колебаться в пределах, классифицировать, про­ стираться We will continue with ourplanned rangeofproducts. Course aggregaterangesinsizefrom20 mm to40 mm. 2. add v — добавлять, прибавлять, присоединять additive ['aedativ] n—добавка, присадка, примесь addition['aedifn] n—добавка, присадка inadditionto — вдополнение к, кроме того, к тому же Ifthe resistance ofallthe elements ofthe roofstructure isadded, thisgives the total or overall thermal resistance. This is the most effective protection against freezing without the use ofharmful chemical additives. In additiontogiving ageneral introduction to computers, the course alsoprovidespractical experience. 3.dwellingn— жилище, индивидуальный жилой дом The cityplan must be flexible so that it may renew its dwellings.
72 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 4. mansion ['maenfnj п— жилой дом, особняк A handsome mansionwas erected upon a new site. 5 condominium [(konda'mini3m] n—амер. многоквартир­ ный дом (в котором квартиры находятся в частном вла­ дении) This is a luxurious pnvate condominium comprising 16 villas withprivate gardens and also alarge swimmingpool. 6. tenement ['tenomont] n— многоквартирный дом, сда­ ваемый в аренду The tenement blocks on each side of the street, comprising 21 flats, are to be sold off. 7. blockofflats — многоквартирный жилойдом Many new blocks offlatsare to be built according to the new development plan. 8. timber-framedbouse —деревянный каркасный дом detachedhouse[di'taetft] — отдельно стоящий жилой дом semi-detachedhouse(semis) —дом издвух квартир duplex house ['dju.pleks] — амер. двухэтажный дом, дом-дуплекс(с квартирами, расположенными одна над другой) ranch-stylehouse['ramtfstail] —дом типа ранчо apartmenthouse[o'pcntmont] — многоквартирный дом mobilehouse ['maubail] — передвижной дом terracedhouses['terost] —домарядовой застройки People in the world’s coldest climates prefer to live in timber- framehouses. M any British people think that a detachedhouse is the best type ofhouse to have Plot 5 is a three bedroom semi­ detachedhousewith parking space. This bedroom duplexhouse is locatedjust 10 metersfrom the sea. A 15th century toweris attached
UNIT4. A LIVING PLACE 73 to a neat ranch-style house. Apartment houses are mostly built to suit urban conditions Mobilehouses have very small wheels and are rarely moved from their usualplace 9. studio ['stju.-d isu] (syn.) loft n — однокомнатная квар­ тира Alarge studioapartment in thisblock islocated within walking distance to the tube. 10.housing estate[l'steit] —район жилой застройки Large modem housingestatesadjacentto the school contrast with thefarm land opposite the site. 11.housingdevelopment — застройка жилого квартала The sites are based within the East ofScotland and are mainly larg e v olu m e housing developments. 12. tiled roof[Tailed]— черепичная крыша pointed roof — остроконечная крыша, островерхая крыша thatched roof ['Gaetft] — соломенная, тростниковая крыша This redbrick house built with atiledroofissituated in a nice area with agarden shed. It is a huge, handsome building with a central ring of slender iron pillars supporting apointed roof. The cottage looked so strange with its low white walls and thatchedroof. 13. extend [ik'stend] v — расширять (дом и т.п .), удлинять Thewalls can be moved and reconstructed toextendthe shop. 14. rather than ['гсиЗэ] — а не, вместо Ican do itnow ratherthantomorrow.
74 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 15. despite [di'spait]prep— несмотря на Despitesurplus housing on the market, many families still rely on social housing construction. 16. contain [kan'tein] v — содержать, включать, вмещать The formula includes sand and minerals which containoxides of aluminum, iron calcium and magnesium. 17. date (from) v — существовать (с какого-л . времени), относиться к определенному времени, вести начало (от чего-л .) This type ofhouse datesfromVictorian times. 18.pulldown v — сносить (сооружение) Inoldtownsand citiesthehouseswhichnolongermeetmodem requirem ents have beenpulleddown. 19. similar (to) ['simob] adj— подобный, схожий, по­ хожий similarity[^simo'Iaeroti] n— подобие, сходство My house is similartoyours. How much similarity is there between these two building styles? 20. close (to) ['klaus] adv — близко Cement should be stored as closetothe mixers as possible. 2. Read and translate the following international words. Look up their transcriptions in the dictionary if necessary. Mind the part of speech Public adj, style n, associate v, apartment n, basic adj, plus n, mobile adj, trailer n, cottage n, bungalow n, extremely adv, pair n, separate adj, professional adj, modernize v, character n,
UNIT4. A LIVING PLACE 75 popular adj, start v, double adj, asbestos n, drainage n, fix v, equivalent adj. 3. Match the pairs of synonyms from A and В and translate A В 1. close a. resemblance 2. extend b. include 3. studio c. house 4. similarity d. lengthen 5. semi-detached house e. impressive house 6. dwelling f. variety 7. range g. near 8. contain h. semis 9. mansion l. additive 10. addition j. loft 4. M atch the verb on the left with a suitable item on right. Use each item once only. 1. lay a. chemical additives 2. build b. an apartment in atenement 3. range c. from the 10th century AD 4. use d. a tiled roof 5. live e. down an old block offlats 6. date f. in quantity and intensity 7. sell g. fashionable with people 8. pull h. offa ranch-style house 9. rent i.in an apartment house 10. become j. a timber-framed house
76 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 5. Make the following sentences complete by translating the words and phrases in brackets. I. Themap shows the range of(застройки жилых кварталов) around Manhattan. 2 . Technically, а (многоквартирный дом, в котором квартиры находятся в частном владении) is а collection ofindividual home units along withtheland upon which they sit 3. Large numbers of(дома рядовой застройки) were builtin the suburbs oflargeAustralian citiesin the 1850s 4. (Кро­ ме) buying and selling used trucks, the company is also adealer for new construction equipment. 5 . The decision was taken for political(а не) military reasons. 6 .Although steelframingis(схо­ жий) traditional framing in the construction process, the construction matenals are vastlydifferent, and builders need to be trained to use them correctly. 7 . Spacious and dignified apartments ofthe (район жилой застройки) are especiallyexquisite due to highly individual designer approach. 8 . Look up and you will see our building, a tall building with а (остроконечная крыша). 9 . (Несмотря на) being enthusiastic about having agreen roof, we really had no idea how to construct one. 10. Cottage housing provides an option that preserves thepnvacy andpersonalspace of а (отдельно стоящий жилой дом) in asmaller and less costly unit. 6. Read and translate thefollowinggroups of sentences paying attention to the words in italics which can function as a noun and a verb, or a verb and an adjective, or a noun and an adjective, with the sameform. They can have similar ordifferent meanings. Look upyour dictionary if necessary. 1. a. Thecompanyputs out alargerangeofbuilding matenals. b.Building styles rangefrom modem to country ones c. They installed a new electnc range. 2. a. Thesechurchesdalefrom the 12th century. b. This construction method is very up-to-date. c. I can’t read the dateon this letter.
UNIT4. A LIVING PLACE 77 3. a . Manyfamilies are in need ofbetterhousing. b.That machine should beprotected bya metalhousing. c. The main housingproblem is m renovation ofbuildings. 4. a . The shops close on Sundays. b.The house is closeto the park. c. The two brothers are very close. 5. a . They live in the top flat. b. The roof ofthis building isflat c. His carhad aflattyre 7. Study the following patterns showing the ways some nouns are formed from adjectives and other nouns. Complete the charts with nouns. Some ofthe missing words are from the texts ofthe Unit. Read and translate them into Russian. Use your dictionary to help you with the pronunciation. Pattern 11 Adjective/Noun + -ian —►Noun The -ian suffix is used for aperson skilledin or studying the stated subject. Example', technical — технический —>technician — техник Adjective/Noun Noun electric ______________________ historic ______________________ mathematics ______________________ optical ______________________ political ______________________
78 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей Pattern 12 Noun + -ist Noun The -ist suffix is used for a person who studies, produces, plays, or operates. Example,economics — экономика - » economist—экономист Noun Noun science ______________________ physics ______________________ tour ______________________ novel ______________________ education ______________________ type ______________________ Pattern 13 I Adjective + -ness -»Noun| The -ness suffixis used for a condition, quality, or degree ofsomething. Example happy — счастливый —>happiness — счастье Adjective Noun effective ______________________ attractive ______________________ aware ______________________ kind ______________________ friendly ______________________ weak ______________________
UNIT 4. A LIVING PLACE 79 Pattern 14 IAdjective/Noun+-cy -> Noun | The -cy suffix is used for a state or quality. Example,accurate —точный —»accuracy —точность Adjective/Noun Noun deficient efficient _______ dependent _______ frequent ___________ ___________ consultant ______________________ president _____________ ____ _____ agent _____________ ____ _____ SECTION 2 GRAMMAR 8. Usethemodelverbs must(должен), can (могу,умею), may (можно, разрешено), should(следует/совет/), oughtto (следу­ ет /упрек/)to complete the sentences. There maybe morethan © 1. It’s too farto walk from here to the station. You ... take a taxi. 2 . Sarah got the job because she ... speak five languages. 3. The windows are dirty. I ... clean them. 4.You ... use a dictionary. 5 . 1likethishotel room. You ... see thelakefrom the window.6.It’sagoodfilm.You...seeit.7.He...takemy book. 8.We ... go to the bank today.Wehave no money. 9. Whenyou aredriving,you ... wear a seatbelt. 10.We ... see
80 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей the lakefrom our window 11.Ifyou have time, you ... visitthe museum. It’s very interesting. 12 . I ... come and see you tomorrow. 13 She ... use this computer program. 14. Your salary isvery low. You ... look for anotherjob. 15. Mary is a very interesting person. You . meet her. 16. Take an umbrella with you when you go out. It ... rain later. 17 Sandra ... drive but she hasn’tgot a car 18.Tomorrow thegameisveryimportant for us. We .. win. 19. Students ... bring textbooks into the examination room. 20 . It’s late and you’re very tired. You ... go to bed. 9. Refer the following sentences to the past and the future by changing the forms of the modal verbs must (have to/be to), can (could, be able to), may (be allowed to); use them in the negative and interrogative. Translate the sentences into Russian. A)1.He mustreadthebook.2.Asecretary mustcometo work in time. 3. We mustpass the examination m English.4 . I must finish the translation in time 5. He must work hard. B) 1.She can translate thissentence from English into Russian. 2 Jane can continue herstudiesat the correspondencedepartment. 3. 1can hire a carfrom our localgarage 4. Dr Parker can see you at twelve on Tuesday. 5. They can use a computer to do calculations. C) 1.You may stop workearlytoday.2 The students may use thislibrary.3. He maytake mybike. 4 .John may use my office. 5. You maygo home afteryour lectures. 10. Read and translate the following sentences with the modal verbs expressing degrees of certainty and possibilityin the present and in the future: must (наверное, должно быть), may/might (вероятно, возможно), can’t(неможетбыть). 1. Не maylive in an apartment in the downtown area ofthe city 2.You are a building engineer, aren ’t you?That mustbe an
UNIT4. ALIVING PLACE 81 interestingjob. 3. I may ask you to help me later 4 Mary must get very tired in herjob She does the same thing everyday. 5. He might not be working today. 6 That can’t be John, he is in London. 11. Read and translate the following sentences with the modal verbs expressing degrees of certainty, possibility or obligation in the past. Example He musthave lost hispen somewhere. — Он должнобыть где- то потерял свою книгу. You shouldhave done thatjob. — Вам следовало{бы)сделать эту работу. 1. Most ofthesepipes must havebeen hiddenfrom view inthe finished house. 2 . Council houses were so badly built that they should have beenpulled down ten years ago. 3 .They can’t have builtthe house oftheir own out ofthe nearest available materials. 4. This technology must have been applied to a newly designed building. 5 . These building experts should have become involved more actively in the construction process. 6 . This type ofhouse may nothave become a mansion. 12. Read and translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the meaning and use of the modal verbs and their equivalent forms. 1. The foundation has to be strong enough to hold up the building. 2 . Wet plaster must be given a few weeks to dry out before that can bedone. 3. The designer mustplan the relationship between theposition ofthe crane, thelocation ofthe heavierloads to be lifted, and the position where they are to be placed in the building. 4 . An apartment with only one room may be called a studio or a loft. 5 . While the foundations are being built, the
82 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей main drains must be laid to connect up to the public sewers. 6 . Travel from Western France across to the Urals and you willbe able to see citiessurroundedbymodem high-rise blocks offlats. 7. He can’t havefinished thatjobyesterday.8 Once the foundation and floorwerecomplete, the mainpart ofthe house couldbebuilt up. 9.Allconstructionpreparations may have been completed last week 10. The consulting engineersare ofthe opinion that a steel frame ought to be used in the interests ofthe speed of construction. 11 Plaster might be applied straight on to back walls. 12. The first courses ofbricks willhave to bebuiltcarefully,forthe wholebuilding will rest on them. 13 .Heavytimbers shouldbe usedforsupporting the roof. 14.They willbe allowed to beginwork inside the house when the outer shellis complete. 16.He shouldhave movedfrom a house into a bungalow. 17. Since the 1980s, council tenants havebeen able to buy their own homes very cheaply ifthey have lived in them for overtwo years. 18 . Ifrents are high nearwhere people work, they have to commute long distances by carorbus every day. SECTION 3 READING AND SPEAKING 13. Before you read Text 4A “Building Styles”, study the statements given below. Do you think they are true or false? a) There are only old buildings in Britain. b)There are alot oflarge houses in the United States. c)Americansdon’t like to live in city centres. d)There are a lot ofdifferent types ofhousesin the US. e) Villages are not pleasant places to live. f)Adetached houseisthe mostprestigioustype ofhouse. g)Asemi-detached house isthe most expensive type ofhouse. h)Onlyworkingpeople livein terraced houses. l) Cottages are regarded asdream homesbysomepeople, g) Blocks offlats were builtbecause they didn’t need any repair.
UNIT4. ALIVING PLACE 83 14. ReadText4A. Find the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers with your groupmates. • TEXT 4A Building Styles Houses and publicbuildings in Britain and the US have been builtin a range ofstylesand materials. Old and new stand sideby side. In Britain there are timber-framed houses, buildings ofbrick or stone, and modem concrete and glass structures. Many US architectural styles came originally from Europe. In the US there isplenty ofspace, exceptinbig cities, so many housesare laigeandhave alot ofgarden around them. Most are detached,butthere are alsoduplexes. Ranch-stylehouses arebuilt on one flooronly.Mansions are verylargehouses where nchpeople live. Some types ofhouses are associated with certainparts ofthe country. New York City, for instance, is famous for its brownstone, tall, narrow buildings named after the material used tobuild them. In the Midwestthere are many woodenframe houses withpointed roofs. The South has wooden housesbuiltbefore the CivilWarin the antebellum style. But all over the US houses are built in many different styles. ManyAmericanspreferto live in the suburbs rather than in a city centre in order to have a pleasant environment andplenty of space. They often live on housing developm ents, areas where allthe houses werebuiltat the same time and are similarin style. In cities manypeople rent an apartment in an apartment building.Apartments usuallyhave
8 4 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей no more than three bedrooms, and are often rented furnished. An apartment with only one room may be called a studio or a loft. A building in which the apartments are owned by the people wholiveinthem is called a condominium or a co-op. Poorpeople maylivein apartments intenements in thedowntown area of a city, in small, very basic houses or in mobile homes. Despite the name, many people keep their mobile home in a trailerpark and never move it. Many people in Bntain live in the suburbs consisting of new housing estates, while others were originally villagesthat havebecome joined to the town as it hasgrown. Villages are considered to be pleasant places to live, as they are quieter and less polluted than towns and are closer to the countryside. They usually contain a range of houses, including old cottages and new houses and bungalow s. Mosthousesarebuiltofbnck with atiled roof, thoughsomeare built of stone. The largest and most expensive type ofhouse is a detached house, which is not joined to other houses and has a garden all roundit. Detached houseshave at leastthreebedrooms and one ortwo bathroomsupstairs, and one or moreliving rooms plus a separate dining room and kitchen downstairs. Semi-detached houses, or semis, are extremelycommon. They are builtinpairs with one housejoined to the otheralong one side. These houses usually have two or three bedrooms. There is a separate garden at thefront andthebackforeachhouse. Terraced housesdate from Victorian and Edwardian times and were built mainlyforworking-classpeople. Four or more houses are joined togetherin a row. Terraced houses were originallyquite small. Most have now been extended andbathrooms added, and in some towns theyhavebecomefashionable withprofessionalpeople. Cottages are small, very old villagehouses. Some have thatched roofs. Manyhavebeen modernizedinsidebut still keep the wooden beams and otherfeaturesthat are thoughtto give them character. Some people think of a country cottage as their dream home. Bungalowshave one storey, and this makesthem especiallypopular
with olderpeople They are mostlyfound in villages or on housing estates. High-rise blocks offlats, sometimes over 20 storeys high with several flats on each floor, were built in many towns in the mid 20th century. Manyhavesincebeen pulleddownbecause they needed a lot ofrepairs and becausepeople did not like living in them 15. Find in Text 4A the paragraph saying about the type of houses most British people prefer to live and translate it into Russian. 16. Read aloud paragraphs 6—7 . 17. Explain the following references. a) . Oldand newstand side by side. What do the adjectives oldand new refer to? b) Theyoften live on housing developments. Whatdoesthepronoun theyreferto? c) otherswere originally villages that havebecom ejoined to the townasithasgrown. What doesthepronoun othersreferto? d) Theyusually contain a range ofhouses, including old cottages and new houses andbungalows. Whatdoesthepronoun theyreferto? e) some are built of stone. Whatdoesthepronoun somereferto? f) this makes them especially popular with olderpeople. Whatdothepronounsthisand themreferto?
86 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециаль>.<ктей 18. Find in Text 4А some key words and expressions to speak about different types of houses in Great Britain and the United States of America. Retell the Text in English. 19. Skim Text 4B “Building Houses” and try to understand what it is about and what information is already known to you. important to prevent them from cracking or shifting. While the foundations arebeing built, the main drains must belaid to connect up to thepublic sewers. Atimber-framedbuildinghas concrete foundation walls on top of a footing of concrete, and then timbersills which are anchored to the concrete while it isstillwet. In brick-built housesthe courses ofbncks start on top ofthe concrete foundations. The first courses of bricks must be built carefully, for the whole house will rest on them Once the foundations and floor are complete, the mainpart of the house can be built up. In timber-framed houses the main supportingjoists are sometimesmade ofsteel or reinforced concrete. Heavy timbers mustbe usedfor supporting the roofand stairs and fordoor and window frames; for the rest ofthe structure lighter timberis used. In brick-built houses the walls arebuiltup indouble layers and thewoodenframeworkfordoors and windows as well as • TEXT 4B Building Houses In order to understand how a house is built we must start at the beginning. The first thing to do is to level the ground and make the foundations. These are usually made of concrete which is poured into trenches dug in the ground. They have to be strong enough to hold up the building, and so it is
UNIT 4. A LIVING PLACE 87 thewoodenjoistsforthefloors areincorporated asworkgoes on. Asthe house risesitisnecessary to provide scaffolding and platforms forthe workersto stand on. Thisis made ofsteeltubing withplanks laid across, ladders to go up and down, and hoists to lift up the building materials. Theroofofthe house maybeflat or sloping.Raftersof wood are laid across, which are then covered with slates ortiles. In some places they are called shingles. They maybe made ofany material that is waterproof, including clay, concrete, metal, and asbestos. They arelaid so thatthey overlap and letthe water run off. A timber-framed house must be covered with either timber, bricks, or some othercovering to finish the walls. There will also probably be an insulating layer of, for instance, glass fibre, to keep the house warm and dry. This willbe put in between the living space and the roofto prevent heat escaping upwards. Brick- builthouseshaveinsulationput in the cavitybetween the walls and below the roof. When the outer shell is complete, work can begin inside the house. The walls are usually lined withplaster. This may be applied straighton to brick walls oritmay comein theform ofplasterboard, which is attached to the walls on strips of wood calledbattens. Later it will be painted or papered for decoration; wet plaster must be given afew weeks to dry out before that can be done. Plastering must be carefully timed to fit in with the work of the plumbers and electricians. Plumberslay the pipes for the water supply, heating system, and drainage. They alsohaveto fixthedrainagepipes on the outside ofthehouse, which willjoin upto thedrains and sewers, and put in the bathroom and kitchen fittings to which the pipes are connected. Mostofthesepipeshavetobehiddenfrom viewinthe finished house and so some ofthem willbefixed so that they are behind theplaster afterithasbeen applied, and some willbe under the floorboards. Similarly, the electric wires and fittings will mostly be embedded in plaster or laid under the floors. Sometimes the wires are encased inplastic tubes which are laid around the edge of
88 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей the floors and window frames. The plumber and electrician also work togetherin installing such things as central-heatingboilers. Atthe same time, carpenters will be workinginside the house finishingthe wooden floors, staircases, window frames anddoors, as well asfitting cupboards. Last ofall,thepainters and decorators come in to paint the house inside and out. 20. Identify the topic of each paragraph ofText 4B. 21. Complete the sentences choosing the best variant corresponding to the contents ofText 4B. 1)Thefoundationshave to be strong enough a) to prevent them from cracking. b) to levelthe ground. c) to support the building. 2)The house will rest on a) a concrete foundation. b) the first courses ofbricks. c) top of a footing of concrete. 3) Scaffolding and platforms are provided for the workers a) to stand on. b) to lift up the building m aterials. c)to go up anddown. 4)Slates are made of a) clay. b) wood. c) any waterproofmaterials. 5) Drainagepipes are connected to a) the bathroom and kitchen fittings. b) the drains and sewers. c) the floorboards
6) The lastthing to do in the house is a) to install central heating boilers. b)to finishthewoodenfloors, window frames anddoors. c) to paint the house. 22. Read Text 4C “Houses and Homes” and find the answers to these questions. Discuss your answers with your groupmates. a) How doyou know thatyou are m anothercountry? b) What were the reasons to constructblocks offlats? c) What problems do people face, living in blocks offlats? d)What isthe basic idea ofhome for the English? e) How do the English distinguish a flat from a house? f) What is the differencebetween the wordshouseand home? g) How does ahouse qualifyasold in Russia and England? • TEXT 4C Houses and Homes Every country has its distinctive housing. Crossfrom England into Scotland or from France into Germany or Spain, and you know instantlythatyou are in another country. Itispartly amatter of architecture, partly a matter of the way people choose to domesticate their immediate surroundings. The English are distinctive in their aversion to flats and their devotion to rows ofsmall brick houses. Travel from Western France across Europe to the Urals andyou willsee citiessurrounded by modem blocks of high-rise flats. The details of architecture will vary,but all countries have found that the obvious solution to cheap new housing to accommodate
90 [ Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей families moving in from the countryside ordemanding improved conditionswithin the towns isto buildblocks offlats. They stand in rows and clusters, not beautiful, not spacious, but convenient and efficient. The problems are similar: noise, cramped public areas, unpredictable water supplies, brokenliftsbutthey are homes for millions of people who prefer them to the more primitive conditions they have left. In England, however, this is not so. Ofcourse some English people enjoy flat-life, but for the vast majonty ofthem, thebasicidea ofhomeis abnck house with rooms upstairs and downstairs. And already the English have a confusion ofterms in translating to and from Russian. TheEnglish use the word housefor a dwelling intended for one family. They would never say of ablockofflatsthat itis a house, and hence “ DOM” has no exact equivalent in English. They alwaysdistinguish a flat from ahouse, notbecause ahouseisgrander(it maybe a tiny section of a row of dwellings) but because the flat is still unusual, exceptin city centres where itisunusualto live anyway. Thewordhomeismuch morepersonal, much warmer:yourhome istheplacewhereyou live whichyou have created — its furnishings but alsoits atmosphere, your sense ofotherpeoplewholivein it, yourfeelings about itspast as well asitspresent. Something ofthe Russianfeeling abouttheprivacy ofkitchensisfound in the English word home. The Russians have a habit ofdescribing anything builtbefore about 1955as “old”. In England ahousedoes not qualifyasold unless it was built at least a hundred years ago. The English still havehundreds ofthousands of reallyold houses, builtbetween the 14thand 18th centuries scattered throughout the country. They are considered very desirable and are very expensive even if they are small. Many ofthem are strikinglybeautiful. At the other end of the scale are bungalows, small brick houses of only one storey, built especially for the elderly Many older people move from a house into a bungalow.
UNIT4. A LIVING PLACE 91 SECTION 4 LISTENING AND SPEAKING 23. Listen to the Text “Building”. a) Answer the questions that follow. 1. What does building refer to9 2.What needsdobuildings serve9 3.Whattypes ofbuildings are mentioned in the text9 4 What is the reason for high ground prices9 5. What are the advantages ofmulti-storeyedbuildings? b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 4A of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the T ext about different types of buildings. d) Are there any multi-storeyed buildings in your town? Ifyes, describe them. 24. Listen to the Text “Skyscrapers”. a) Which of these statements are true and which are false? 1. Skyscrapers were developed in the 20th century as a result of technological advancement. 2. Thegroundbeneath the city ofNewYorkis not solid enough to bearthe weight ofskyscrapers. 3. American architects were experimenting with steel ratherthan iron. 4. High-nse buildings were requiredforthosepeoplewho wanted toliveandworkinabigarea. 5. Skyscrapers are useful wherelandis not cheap.
92 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 6. The streets in which skyscrapers are built may be overcrowded at the end ofthe day. 7. High-rise buildingsdo not have any disadvantages. 8. Skyscrapers can hardly make the surroundings attractive. b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 4B of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about high-rise buildings.
UNIT 5 BUILDING MATERIALS Ш SECTION 1 VOCABULARY AND WORD STUDY 1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary to the text “Materials Used in Budding” and translate the given sentences. 1. clay['klei]n— глина sandn— песок wood n— дерево, древесина, лесоматериалы lumber амер.[ТлтЬэ] (syn). timber n — пиломатериал, строительный лес rock n— горная порода, камень Thesoilwas removeddownto the naturalclay.Mixitwithwashed sand. My desk is made of wood. They got thelumber to build a house. Tobuild this tunnel we had to cutthroughthe solid rock. 2.apartfrom[a'pa.t] — не говоряуже о,кроме, не считая Apartfrom civil engineering, my interest is mathematics. 3. occur [a'ka:] v — происходить; встречаться, попадаться Ifabody issubjected to external loads, deformations occurin it. 4.process ['prauses] [prau'ses] nv — процесс; обрабатывать Weare using a newprocessto make concrete. The information isbeingprocessedby the computer.
94 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 5. last [la:st] v — продолжаться, длиться lasting — прочный, долговечный, длительный The construction ofthe cottage lastedtwo years. Stone is the longest lastingbuilding material. 6. denseadj— плотный, густой, непроницаемый density['denssti] — плотность, концентрация The concrete, when finally placed, must be denseand must closelysurround the reinforcement. Anew internal wall surface is created using a very strong, very versatile, high densitypolyethylene. 7. mortar ['mo:t3] n— строительныйраствор Thejoints are filled with mortarmade of cement and sand. 8. board [bD-d]n—доска, пиломатериал, панель, лист plank[plserjk] n— планка, доска (толщиной 5-10 см) For this board, special types of timbers are carefully chosen. While the steel frame isbeing erected, the wallplanksare fixed. 9. bend n v — изгиб, колено; изгибать, гнуть bendingп— изгибание, сгибание The wire bendseasily. Wood can be flexible under loading, keeping strength while bending. 10. mould(mold)['mould] n— форма, пресс-форма, опа­ лубка moulding(molding)n— формовка, прессование A molten substance, such as metal, or a plastic substance is poured orforced into amouldand allowed to harden. Themoulding of bricks and tiles is only a part of the manufacture of ceramic products.
UNIT 5 . BUILDING MATERIALS 9 5 11. daybrick — глиняный кирпич cinder brick [smdo] — шлаковый кирпич, зольный кирпич cinderblock —блок из шлакобетона, шлакоблок Claybrickscanbeformedin a moulding Compared with other wall materials, cinderbricks have excellent properties and a low price. Low-cost bricks include cinderblock made mostly with concrete 12. aggregate ['aegrigat] n— заполнитель The maximum size oftheaggregateshould not greaterthan one quarter ofthe minimum thickness ofthe finished concrete. 13.binder ['bainda] n— вяжущее, вяжущий материал Concrete is a compositebuilding material comprised ofaggregate and a binder (cement). 14. strength [strepG] n— прочность, сила tensile strength ['tensail] — прочность нарастяжение strengthen ['streijGn] v — укреплять, усиливать Threebasic factors in architecture — convenience, strengthand beauty — are alwayspresent and interrelated in the best structures. The purpose of reinforcing is to provide a material with a high tensile strength. They strengthenedthe wall with metal supports. 15. reinforced concrete [,ri:info:st'kor)kri:t] — железобетон Reinforcedconcrete'Masused in these structural elem ents. 16. bar[ba:] n— арматурный пруток, арматурное железо rebar[n'ba:] v— арматурный стержень This type of concrete is strengthenedby barsof steel.Afterthe formwork has been installed, a grid of three rebars is tied to the outside oftheformwork.
96 Английский язык длястудентов строительных специальностей 17. concern [kan'ssm] пѵ— забота, беспокойство, отноше­ ние, интерес; касаться, иметь отношение, заботиться, беспокоиться concerningprep— относительно, касательно Many new building matenals are environmental hazards, which havebecome abig concernto all. He wrote to me concerningour constructionbusiness. 18. available[з'ѵеіІэЫ]adj— наличный, имеющийся врас­ поряжении availability [э,ѵеі1э'Ьі1эгі] п — наличие In some localities water is available m unlimited quantities. The lack of availabilityofbuilding materials led to a decrease in new housing construction. 19. produce [pra'dju:s] v — производить, выпускать product['prodAkt] n— продукт, изделие man-madeproducts— искусственная продукция production[pra'dAkJn] n— производство, изготовление These plantsproducelarge amounts ofprefabricated units and elements Thelayout ofthefactory willdepend on the type ofthe productsto be manufactured.One ofthegreatest advantages ofman­ madeproductsis theirlow cost. The system for housing provision relied on the centralizedproduction ofbuilding materials. 20. due to ['dju:tu:] prep — благодаря Hissuccessis entirely duetohard work. 2. Read and translate the following international words. Look up their transcriptions in the dictionary if necessary. Mind the part of speech. Product n, synthetic adj, typically adv, categorize v, manipulation n, minimally adv. press v, verticallyadv, mixture
UNIT 5. BUILDING MATERIALSj 97 «, modern adj, transport n, colour n, organic adj, tolerance n, combine v, dam n, cementn,determine v, compression n, clinker n, crane n, paste n. 3. Match the pairs of antonyms from A and В and translate them . A 1. unobtainable 2. straighten 3. dispersed 4. end 5.be avoided 6. weaken 7. natural 8. indifference В a. strengthen b. dense c. man -made d. concern e. bend f. last g. occur h. available 4. Match the noun(s) on the left with a suitable item on the right. Use each item once only. 1. Mortar 2. Bricks 3. Steel 4. Clay 5. The boards 6. Reinforced concrete 7. Clay 8. A moulding 9.The brickwork strength 10. A binder a. were put down as afloor. b.depends on the materialquality. c. is strengthened by bars. d. is used to form clay bricks. e. has high tensile strength. f. is used in adhesive applications. g. was pressed into steel moulds. h. acts as a cementing material, l. are put togetherto form a wall, j. is plastic. 4 Зак 312
98 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 5. Replace the underlined words with the words below. a) process b) timber c) due to d) bend e) apart from f) aggregate g) produce h) board i) lasting j) concerning 1. Thanks to this project, small companies can manufacture affordable building materials locally, using their own resources. 2 We have aproblem with the airtemperature m this room. Itis too cold.Thisisbecause ofinadequate thermal insulation. 3.They encouraged the research activities on approaches and methods with regard to building materials and construction technology. 4 . The properties of concrete are directly related to those ofits constituents. 5.That was a new method to treat cement-basedbuilding materials hydrothermally. 6. Reinforced concrete comes cheap and will support structures for a long amount oftime, but itis considered to be less strong and durable than bnck buildings. 7 . Various building m aterials and auxiliary building materials can be manufactured from waste glassin an environmentallysound way. Except for light-weight concrete and plaster these are, above all, glass wool mats for purposes of sound and heat insulation. 8. M odem western style home is often built with lumberframes and fitted with bricks. 9 Wood is used for construction purposes when cut or pressed into lumber, such as planks. 10. They are studying an elasticbend ofabeam underload. 6. Read and translate the following word combinations which come from the texts of the Unit. Mind the use of nouns as attributes in preposition. Look up your dictionary if necessary. Construction purpose, stone-like material, concrete construction, steel rods and bars, external surface covering, metal alloy,heat tolerance, polyurethane foam, world wide scale, bridge supports, airfield runway, steel reinforcement, cem ent layer, metal
UNIT 5 . BUILDING MATERIALSJ 99 box-like mould, stiff-clay process, extrusion machine, clay particles, rail trucks, calcium silicate bricks, sand lime bricks, brick shape. 7. Study the following patterns showing the ways some nouns are formed from other nouns and som e adjectives are formed from nouns. Complete the charts. Some ofthe missing words are from the texts ofthe Unit. Read and translate them into Russian. Use your dictionary to help you with the pronunciation. Pattern 15 Noun + -ship-> Noun The -ship suffix is used for especially a status, condition, or skill. Example, citizen — гражданин -» citizenship — гражданство Noun Noun leader - ---- ---------------------- ---- --- student ----------- ---- ------------------ - friend ----------- ---- ------------------ - relation ----------- ---- ------------------ - member --- ---------------------- ---- ----- partner - ---------------------- ---- ---- --- proprietor - --------- ---------- ----------- --- space --------------------------- ---- --- 4*
Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей Pattern 16 I Noun + -fill - > Adjective | The -fill suffix m eansfull oforhavingthequalityofthenoun Example, success — успех -> successful — успешный Noun Adjective cane ______________________ power ______________________ duty ______________________ use ______________________ harm ______________________ Pattern 17 INoun + -less-» Adjective j The -less suffix means without. Example, use — польза - » useless — бесполезный Noun Adjective effort ______________________ help ______________________ meaning ______________________ motion ______________________ hope ______________________ harm
UNIT 5 . BUILDING MATERIALS 1 0 1 Pattern 18 Noun + -ic -» Adjective The -ic suffix means like, or connectedwith. Example, atom — атом -> atomic —атомный Noun Adjective cube -- --- ----- --- ---- --- -------- --- --- economy ----- -- -- ------------ -- ----------- acid ------- -- -- ------------ -- -- ------- linguistics ------- -- -- ------------ -- -- ------- magnet --------- -- -- ------------ -- -- -- --- symbol --- -- -- -------------- -- -- --------- bureaucrat ______________________ patnot ------- -- -- ------------ -- -- ------- SECTION 2 GRAMMAR 8. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the different forms of the infinitive and their meaning. 1. I’dliketogohome earlytoday.2 .It’s nicetobesittinghere. 3. I’m gladtohaveleftschool.4 .Hedoesn’t liketobeinterrupted whilehe’sworking.5 . 1remembertohavebeenaskedthisquestion 6 I’d like tohavebeensittingthere when she walked in. 7 . She asked me nottoforgettopostthe letter 8. I was sorry nottohave phonedyou. 9 .We must makecarefulplans. 10.I would rather goby myself.
102I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 9. Read and translate the sentences with infinitives used as: a) Subject Example Toreadbooks in bad light is harmful. — Читать книги при плохом освещении вредно. 1. То be a professional in building construction requires study at a university or college. 2 . To fill the gapsbetween the cement particles was veryimportant. 3 .Toincrease durability ofconcrete was necessary. 4 .To shorten the setting time of concrete was all thatthey wanted 5.To work inbuilding construction wasthe dream of his life. b) Adverbial m odifier Example We must work hard tomasterEnglish. — Мы должны много работать, чтобыовладетьанглийским языком. Тоimprovehis English he went to England. — Чтобы улуч­ шитьанглийский язык, он поехал в Англию. 1. After being formed, bricks are loaded on rail trucks and pushed into driers, and then into kilns to be fired. 2 . Different formsofmortar were usedto holdthe stonestogether. 3 .Toproduce glasswith different colours o r characteristics additives are very often addedtothe mixture when making.4 .To make reinforced concrete the steel rods are held inposition and the concrete poured round them. 5 .Windows havebeen used since the invention ofglassto cover small openings in a building. 6 . A timberframe is covered withbricks to provide an outer covering. c) Object Example He hopestofindagoodjob. — Он надеется найтихорошую работу.
UNIT 5. BUILDING MATERIALS 1 0 3 1. Concrete is strong in its resistance to loads trying to crush it (compression), but much weakerin resisting forces that tend to pull it apart (tension). 2 . Bricks were more flame retardant than wood, and cheap to produce. 3 .Concrete ispreferred to natural rock, whichisdifficultto extract from theground and whichhasto beworkedto the required shape. 4 .Itisimportant notto use too much water asthis will make the concrete weak.5 .Any forces tending to pullthe reinforced concrete apart willbe resisted bythe great strength ofthe steelbars. d) Attribute Example The road toconnectthese two towns isbeing built. — Дорога, котораядолжнасоединитьэти два города, строится. Неге isthe text tobetranslated. — Вот текст, которыйнужно {надо) перевести. 1. Windowsprovided humans with the ability to both letlight into rooms while atthe sametimekeepinginclement weatheroutside. 2. They designed the building structures to successfullysupport and resistthe loads which act on them. 3 .Facingbricksto be usedin the outer walls ofbuildings can begiven aroughortextured surface. 4.Arches called trusses are used to span the area to be left open. 5.The first degree in CivilEngineering to be awarded to a woman in the USA wasgranted by Cornell University to Nora Blatch in 1905. e) Part of a predicate Example The problem was togetthere in time. — Задача состояла в том, чтобы добратьсятудавовремя. 1. Anotherway wasto span alarge space which canbe used as a dome. 2.Theeffectisto compressthe row ofblocks sothatthey form a beam orgirder. 3.The problem isto control the hazards
104 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей and risks to construction workers m a constantly changing work environment. 4 . The main objectives of earthquake engineenng are to understand the interaction of structures with shakyground and foresee the consequences ofpossible earthquakes. 5 . One of the construction surveyors’tasks isto survey existing conditions of the future work site. 10. Replace the group of words in bold type by an infinitive. Translate the sentences. Example He was thefirstman whocameto the party. — H e was thefirst tocometo the party. — Он первым пришел на вечеринку. 1. Joseph L. Lambot wasthe first man whodeveloped reinforced concrete in France in 1849. 2 . Everybody was late except me. I was the only one who arrived on time 3. Fiona was the only student whopassedthe exam. 4 .NeilArmstrong wasthe first man whowalkedontheMoon. 5.He wasthefirst manwhoswamthe English Channel. 11. Read and translate the following sentences paying special attention to the use of the Objective and Subjective Infinitive A) Objective Infinitive Construction (Complex Object). Example He wants me togohome. — Он хочет, чтобыя пошелдомой. Iexpect himtowriteto me -Я надеюсь, что он напишет мне. 1saw themgoto the park. — Я видел, как онипошлив парк. I saw themgoing to the park. — Я видел, как они шли в парк. Imade himdothatjob. — Я заставил егосделатьэту работу.
UNIT 5. BUILDING MATERIALS 105 1. We consider ultra-lightweight concrete to be one ofthe most fundamental bulk materials of the future. 2 . They wanted the manager to organize all the workers needed for constructionjobs 3. I heard you break something. What was it? 4. They made construction workers wear the personalprotective equipment — hard hats, steel-toe boots and high visibilityjackets. 5 1 saw her pick up theparcel, open itand take out abook.6 .They expected the students to pass an exam on mathematics to start building construction studies. 7 . I saw bricklayers constructing brickwork and plumbers installing drainage systems. B) Subjective Infinitive Construction (Complex Subject). Example Thisman is said toknoweverybody here. — Говорят, что этот человек знает здесь всех. Неisknown tobeagoodstudent. — Известно, что он хоро­ ший студент. The child seemed to be sleeping. — Казалось, что ребенок спит. They are likely to comeback on Tuesday. — Вероятно, они вернутсяво вторник. 1. This type of concrete isknown to have reinforcement in the form of wires. 2 . Reinforced concrete is said to crack in tension ratherthan in compression. 3 .Steel rods are sure to be embedded m the mixture, thus forming reinforced concrete 4. Sand lime bricks are reported to be madebypressing a mixture of moist sand and limeintobnck shapeby machine. 5 .Thefinal strengthofthe cement paste islikely to be reached in three weeks 6.Concrete is usually considered not to shnnk due to hydration.
1 0 6 Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей 12. А). Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the For-to infinitive Construction. Example He spoke loudlyfor them (thepeople) to hearhim. — Он гово­ рил громко, чтобы они (люди) его слышали. It is necessaryfo r us to do this work. — Нам необходимо сде­ лат ь эту работу вовремя. It is necessaryfo r society to allocate resources economically. — Необходимо, чтобы общество экономно размещало ресурсы. 1. It was important for them to calculate accurately the cost of materials and labour. 2. It is necessary for building engineers to have an understanding of different technical disciplines as projects often involve many of them at the same time. 3. It makes sense for builders to use many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, sand, wood and rocks for construction of buildings. 4. This makes it possible for construction people to use synthetic polystyrene or polyurethane foam as part of a structural insulated panel where the foam is sandwiched between wood or cement. 5. It was possible for them to make concrete on the building site. 6. It is increasingly common for many builders to reduce the size of reinforced concrete beams if the reinforcement is stretched before the concrete is poured into position. B) Rewrite these sentences using the For-to Infinitive Construction. Example: She can’t come. (It’s impossible ) — It’s impossible for her to come. 1. Nick shouldn’t change his job just now. (It would be a mistake ...) 2. Can Mary come to the meeting? (Is it possible ...?) 3. Pete shouldn’t go to Africa. (It’s a bad idea ...) 4. The meeting
UNIT 5. BUILDING MATERIALS 1 0 7 needn’t jtart before seven. (There is no need ...) 5. I ’ll be happy if you take holiday. (I’ll be happy ...) 6 .1want the children to go to a good school. (I’m anxious ...) 7. The car should have regular services. (It’s important...) SECTION 3 READING AND SPEAKING 13. Before reading Text 5A “M aterials Used in Building” , discuss these questions with your groupmates or teacher. a) What naturally occurring and man-made building materials do you know? b) What areas is the use ofbuilding materials usually segmented into? c) W hat is the longest lasting building material? d) What is specific of wood used in construction? e) What types of bricks do you know? What are the advantages o f bricks? f) What materials are bricks made from? g) Why is concrete the predominant building material in this modem age? h) What materials is concrete made from? i) What type ofbuildings is metal used for? j) What did glass as a building material provide people with? k) What do you know about the use ofplastics for construction purposes? l) What insulation materials are used in buildings? m) Are there any environmental problems of using and producing building materials?
108I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 14. Read Text 5А to find out ifyou are right or wrong. • TEXT 5A Materials used in Building Building m aterial is any material which is used for a construction purpose. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, sand, wood and rockshavebeen used to construct buildings, Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man­ made products are in use, some more and someless synthetic. The use of building materials is typically segmented into specific trades, such as carpentry, plumbing, roofing and insulation work. Building materials canbe categorizedinto two sources, natural and synthetic. Natural building materials are those that are unprocessed or minimallyprocessedby industry (lumber orglass). Synthetic materials are made in industrial settings after human manipulations (plastics and paints). Rock is the longest lasting building material available. It is a very dense material so itgivesa lot ofprotection too. Dry-stone wallshavebeenbuiltforaslong ashumanshaveput one stone on top ofanother. Eventuallydifferent forms of mortar were used to hold the stones together, cementbeing the most commonplacenow. Woodis aproduct oftrees and sometimes otherfibrousplants used for construction purposes when cut or pressed into lumber and timber, such asboards orplanks. Wood can be very flexible under loads, keeping strength while bending, and is incredibly strong when compressed vertically. A bnck is ablock made ofkiln-fired material, usually clay or shale. Clay bricks are formed in a mould, or in commercial
UNIT 5. BUILDING MATERIALS 109 manufacture more frequentlybyextruding clay throughadie and then wire-cutting them totheproper size. Brickshavebeen used as a building material since the 1700s This was probably due to the fact that it was much moreflame retardant than wood, and cheap to produce. Cinder blocks replaced clay bricks in the late 20th century. They are made mostly with concrete. Concrete is a composite building material made from the combination of aggregate and abinder. After mixing, the cement hydrates and eventually hardens into a stone-like material. This is the material referred to by the term concrete. For a concrete construction of any size, as concrete has a low tensile strength, it isstrengthened using steel rods orbars. This strengthened concrete iscalled reinforced concrete. Concrete hasbeen thepredominant building material in this modem age due to its longevity, formability, and ease oftransport. Metal is used as structural frameworkforlargerbuildings such as skyscrapers, or as an external surface covering.There are many types of metals used for building. Steel is a metal alloy whose major component isiron, and isthe usual choice for metal structural building materials. It is strong, flexible, and if treated well lasts a long time. Clearwindows have been used since the invention ofglass to cover small openings in a building. They provided humans with the abilityto both let lightinto rooms while at the same tune keeping inclement weather outside. Glass which is very brittle isgenerally made from mixtures of sand and silicates in a very hot fire stove called a kiln. Additives are very often added to the mixture when making to produce glasswith different colours or characteristics. The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic polymerization products. Plastics vary immensely in heat tolerance, hardness, and resiliency. Combined with this adaptability, the general uniformity ofcomposition and lightness of plastics ensures their use in almost all industrial applications today. More recently synthetic polystyrene orpolyurethane foam has been used on a limited scale. It is light weight, easily shaped and
110 Английский языкдля студентов строительных специальностей an excellent insulator. It is usually used as part of a structural insulated panel where the foam is sandwiched between wood or cement. Nowadaystheproduction ofraw materialsforbuildingpurposes ison aworld wide scale. Environmental concerns are alsobecoming a major worldtopic concerning the availabilityof certain matenals, and the extraction ofsuch largequantities needed forthe human habitat. 15. Find in Text 5A the paragraphs saying about the use and production of bricks and concrete in construction and translate them into Russian. 16. Read aloud paragraphs 1 and 2 ofText 5A. 17. Explain the following references. a) so itgives a lot ofprotection too. What does thepronoun itreferto? b) They are made mostly with concrete. What doesthe pronoun theyreferto9 c) itis strengthened using steel rods or bars. What does thepronoun //referto? d) Itis strong, flexible, and if treated well lasts a long time. What doesthepronoun itreferto? e) Itislight weight, easily shaped and an excellent insulator. Whatdoesthepronounitreferto? f) Itisusually used as part of a structural insulated panel What doesthepronoun itreferto?
и Ш 5 . BUILDING MATERIALS 111 18. Underline or mark the main ideas of Text 5Л to speak about different types of building materials. Retell the Text in English. 19. Skim Text 5B “Concrete” and try to understand what it is about and what information is known to you. • TEXT 5B Concrete Concrete is akind of artificial rock made from hydraulic cement, crushed stone orgravel, and sand. Ithas thegreat advantage that it can be made in whatever shapeis needed. Forthis reason concrete is preferred to natural rock, which isdifficult to extract from the ground and which has to be worked to the required shape. By meansof concrete itispossibleto form such parts ofbuildings as walls, floors, beams or columns, bndge supports and girders, dams, roads and airfield runways, or blocks of stone of anydesired shape. Concrete maybedelivered ready-mixed,but itis one ofthe fewbuilding matenals that can be made on the building site. In the making of concrete, the proportions ofthe sand,gravel, and Portland or similar cement are carefully measured.The strength of the concrete is partly determinedbythe amount of cement in the mixture. More cement wouldgiveastronger, more durable mix, but would be more expensive. It is important notto usetoo much water as this will make the concrete weak. On the other hand, the concrete must be packeddenselyinthe moulds, which cannot be done ifthe mixture is too dry. Producing A modern building: Boston City Hall is largely constructed of concrete, both pre-cast and poured-in-place.
112 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей concrete ofgood quality istherefore a skilledbusiness Nowadays mechanical vibrators are used to make strong compact concrete from fairly dry mixes. Concrete is strong m its resistance to loads trying to crush it (compression), but much weaker in resisting forces that tend to pullit apart (tension). It is nottherefore suitable by itselffor making beams or otherparts liable to bebent or pulled. To overcome this weakness, steel rods maybeembeddedin the mixture, thusforming reinforced concrete. Reinforced concrete wasfirst developed m France by Joseph L. Lambot m 1849. To make reinforced concrete the steel rods are held in position and the concrete poured round them. The concrete bonds to the steel reinforcement. Anyforces tending to pull the reinforced concrete apart will be resisted by the great strength of the steel rods, or bars. Nearly all concrete used for buildings and structures is reinforced. The size of reinforced concrete beams can be reduced if the reinforcement isstretchedbefore the concrete ispoured into position and the pull maintained until the concrete ishard and strong.The stretching force is then removed and, as a result, the beam is compressed.Thistype ofconcrete usually hasreinforcement in the form of wires and is known as prestressed concrete. Sometimes separate blocks ofconcrete are made with holesthroughthem. Cables ofwire are threaded through these holes so that the concrete blocks are likebeads on a string.The cables are fetched, wedgesareplaced in the holes ofthe endblock, and the cables are then released.The effectisto compressthe row ofblocks sothattheyform abeam or girder. Lightweight concrete can be madeby includingprocessed clinker or airin the mix. Concrete can be made in different colours or painted with specialpaint. Different patterns can be made on the surfaceby using different types ofshuttenng. Sometimes the cement layer on the surface is removed afterthe concrete has set to expose the stones. Thisis called exposed aggregate. Concrete can be used forthin roofs called shells overlarge spaces such asgymnasiums or aircraft hangars. The thin slab is strengthened by curving.
UNIT5. BUILDING MATERIALS 1 1 3 Pre-cast concrete is concrete already made into building sections for later use in housing, bridges, and other structures. They are taken to the site, liftedbycranes, and fixed togetherwith concrete. 20. Identify the topic of each paragraph of Text 5B. 21. Complete the sentences choosing the best variant corresponding to the contents of Text 5B. 1) Concrete has the great advantagebecause a)itismadefrom hydraulic cement, crushed stone orgravel, and sand. b)itismadein any shape. c) ithas to be worked to the required shape. 2) Concrete is the building material that a) canbe made on thebuilding site. b) can’t be delivered ready-mixed to the building site. c) can support walls, floors, beams, columns, girders. 3)Thestrength ofconcrete isdeterminedbythe quantity of a) sand and gravel. b) water. c) cement. 4) To make concrete stronger a) it should be put underloads. b) steel rods shouldbe embedded. c) it should be put under compression or tension. 5)The reinforced concrete beam is compressedbecause a) it is stretched. b) the stretching force is removed. c) holes are made through it.
114I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 6) Lightweight concrete can be madeby using a) processed clinker or air. b) different types of shuttenng. c) exposing the stones. 22. Read Text 5C “Bricks” and find the answers to these questions. Discussyour answers withyourgroupmates. a) Why are bricks considered to be the most lasting of man­ made building materials? b) Whatways arebricks madein? c) What isthe soft-mud processcharacterizedby? d) What does the stiff-clay process consist in? e) What isspecific ofthepressedbnckprocess? f) When arebacks readyforfinng? g) Whatprocessproducesthebacks oflightsandycolour? h) What advantages do lighterbrickshave? i) Whatfactorsdoesthe colour ofclaybricksdepend on? j) What are oversizebricks called? • TEXT 5C Bricks Goodbricks are the most lasting ofman-madebuilding materials. They are not much affected bythe weatherand,ifabuilding catches fire, bnckwork resists the effects of fire longer than most other formsofconstruction. Backs are fairlysmall and light and therefore easy to handle, but when they are bonded together with mortar they make extremelystrong structures. Good bnckwork needs very little maintenance, lasts for a long time, and looks attractive. Bnckisformedin threeways, the soft-mud, stiff-clay, andpressed brick processes. In the soft-mud process, clay is mixed with water to form a stiffpaste which isthen thrown by hand or forced by machine into wooden or metal box-like moulds of the size of a brick. Sand or water is sprinkled on the inside ofthe moulds to
keep the clay from sticking. Thesand or water alsogivesthe brick a pleasant finish. Such bricks are called sand-struck or water- struck bricks. The soft, wet bricks are removed from the moulds for drying. In the stiff-clayprocess, theground clayismixed withwaterin a long trough containing a revolving shaft withblades. Theblades mixtheclay withwaterasthey revolve and atthesametimepushit forward into an extrusion machine. This forces it through a rectangular opening. Itisextruded in a longbarofthe length and width of a brick. A movingbelt carries the clay barto a cutter, whichis a metalframe with a number ofwires stretched acrossit. Thewires arebroughtdownon thebarto cutitintobricks, which are then dried. Bricksformed in this way are known as extruded wire-cutbricks. In thepressedbnck system, the clayissemi-dry, and ispressed bya heavy machine into metal moulds under such highpressure that the clayparticleshold together. Becausepressedbnckhas very little water, it needs little drying. After being formed, bncks are loaded on railtrucks andpushed into driers, and then into kilns to be fired. Drying takes two to three days and then the bricks are ready for finng. Clay is the matenal most often associated withbricks, but since the late 19th century othermaterials have been used. For example, calcium silicatebricks, sometimesknown as sand lime bricks, are made by pressing a mixture of moist sand and lime into brick shape by machine. Thebricks are then steamed under high pressure in an autoclave. This process produces bricks of an UNIT 5 . BUILDING MATERIALS\2± The world's highest brick tower of St. Martin's Church in Lands hut, Germany, completed in 1500 Ja
116 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей attractive light sandy colour which can be textured and pigmented in a variety of ways Not all bricks are completely solid Some have frogs in them. They make it easier to press and fire the bricks and reduce the weight Lighterbricks are easierto handle and cheaperto transport. Nowadays many machine-madebnckshave holesin them for similar reasons. These are called perforated bricks. Specials as the name suggests, are bricks made for a specific purpose They are usually shaped to fitanglesand curves orto produce adecorative effect. The colour of claybncks depends on severalfactors. The type of clay used, chemicals in the clay, the supplyofoxygen while the bncks arebeingfired, and the temperature thebricks reach dunng firing. The colours vary from dark purple to light yellow. Facing bricks to be used in the outer walls ofbuildings can be given a rough or textured surface, or they may be glazed to add to their attractiveness. Sand-lime bricks are naturally white, off-white, or pink, depending on the sand used to make them. By addingpigments, any coloursfrompalepastelsto darktonescan beproduced. Blocks are essentially oversize bricks — commonly about the size of six bricks. They may be made of clay or concrete. Clay blocks are hollow; concrete blocks may be solid or hollow. The advantage ofblocks overbricksisthatbuilding canbe earned out faster with them. SECTION 4 LISTENING AND SPEAKING 23. Listen to theText “Roman Concrete”. Study thefollowing commentary: The BathsofCaracalla —термы римского императораКара- калла (186—217 гг.) ThePantheon — Пантеон, в Риме памятникдревнеримской архитектуры (ок 125 г. н .э .)
UNIT 5 . BUILDING MATERIALS 117 a) Answer the questions that follow. 1.What components wasRoman concrete madefrom? 2. Why wasconcrete regarded as a revolutionary material9 3.What isthedifferencebetween Roman concrete and modem structural concrete? 4.Whyhavemany Roman structures survived to thepresent day? 5.Whattechnique did the Romans use in their structures? 6.When was the secret ofRoman concrete lost? 7.Whopioneered the re-use ofconcrete? 8.What aggregates are used in modem concrete? b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 5A of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about the use and production of concrete. d) Tell your groupmates about the modern use of concrete based on the information to be collected. 24. Listen to the Text “From the History of Brickmaking”. a) As you listen, fillin the chart to describe the periods of the development of brickmaking. Sun-dried bricks The invention of a brick kiln The spread of the ancient craft o f bnckmaking The loss of brickmaking art
The revival ot brickmaking art The replacement of timber framework for brick-built walls b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 5B of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about brickmaking.
UNIT 6 BUILDING SCIENCE Ш SECTION 1 VOCABULARY AND WORD STUDY 1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary to the text “Strength ofM aterials” and translate the given sentences. 1. strengthofmaterials — сопротивление материалов compressive strength[kam'presiv] — прочность на сжатие fatiguestrength [fa'tkg] —усталостная прочность impactstrength['impaekt] —работа деформации при удар­ ном изломе, ударная вязкость staticstrength['staetik]— статическая прочность, проч­ ность при статической нагрузке yield strength[ji:ld] —условный предел текучести Thisbook covers requirements for an engineenng undergraduate course on strengthofmaterialsand structures. One ofthe essential properties of concrete is its compressivestrength. The process is applied to high performance equipment where itisnotpossible to increase thefatiguestrengthby adding m ore m aterial. Impactstrength on reinforced concrete structures was estimatedbythis method.We investigated the resistance to fracture in relation to thestaticstrength and structure oftwo beams. Priorto theyieldstrengththe material will deform elastically and will return to its original shape. 2.damage['daemicfe] nv— повреждение, разрушение, де­ фект; повреждать, разрушать, наносить ущерб Thiswilldo alot ofdamageto thebeam. Firesdamageparts of buildings and whole buildings.
12 0 Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей 3 fail ['fell] v — повреждать, разрушать, выходить из строя failure ['feilp] п — разрушение, авария, сбой, неисп­ равность brittle failure [britl] — хрупкое разрушение compressive (compression) failure — разрушение при сжа­ тии ductile failure ['dAktail] — вязкое (пластическое) разру­ шение tensile failure — разрушение при растяжении The roofjointfailed because of the roof heating up. Frost action causes serious failures o f concrete. One of the most important charactenstics of the structural strength o f steels is th e resistance to brittle failure. The complexities of compressive failure become apparent when a solid block o f matenal is squeezed between parallel plates. Damage models can be used to predict ductile failure in metal forming processes. The standard way to measure tensile strength is to use a small bar with uniform width and to pull at each end until the barfails. 4. prevent (from) [pri'v ent] v — предотвращать, предохра­ нять Temporary end stops should be used to prevent concrete from flowing along the bottom o f th e shutters and segregating. 5. dimension [dai'menjn] n — размер, объем A room has three spatial dimensions, length, height and width. 6 strain [strein] n v — деформация, напряжение, натя­ жение The change of dimensions in a matenal due to a stress is called strain.
UNIT 6. BUILDING SCIENCE 1 2 1 7 withstand [wid'staend] v — противостоять, выдерживать Reinforced concrete can usefully withstandbending load. 8. bear ['Ьеэ] (bore, borne) v -поддерживать, служить опорой bearingn—опора bearingreactions — опорноедавление The bndge must bearthe weight ofthe cars and trucks. The experiment was an investigation into the practicability offixing precast units directlyon to theirbeam bearings.An expenmental technique is described for the measurement ofbearingreactions in bridge slabs. 9. enable [і'пеіЫ] v — давать (создавать) возможность All floors must be constructed before the roofis put on and waterproofed toenablefinishing work to begin. 10. implement v — выполнять, осуществлять, реализовы­ вать The construction committee’s suggestions willbeimplemented immediately. 11. be subjected to [sab'djektid] — подвергаться Abeam is a structural element that issubjectedtoforces acting perpendicular to it. 12. deflection [di'flekfn] n— прогиб, упругаядеформация Thedeflectionofabeam depends on its length, its cross-sectional shape, the material, where the deflecting force is applied, and how thebeam is supported.
122 I Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей 13. shear stress ['/іэ] — касательное напряжение tensile stress —растягивающее напряжение Shearstressiscalculated based on the pnnciple ofconservation of momentum. There aresomekinds of matenals which cannot w ithstand tensile stress. 14. tension['tenfn] n—растяжение, натяжение Concrete has a much higher strength when it is under compression thanithaswhenitissubjected to tension. 15. assess [a'ses] v — оценивать assessment[a'sesmant] n— оценка They tried toassessthe damage to the building.Thisorganization provides theassessmentand control ofconstruction products. 16. capable (of)['keipabl] adj— способный capability [,кеірэ'ЬіЫі] n— способность, возможность, мощность, производительность А new sports hall capable ofaccommodating 6,000 people has recently been completed. The engineer explained the technical capabilities of the building structure. 17. fulfil [ful'fil] v — выполнять, исполнять fulfilment[ful'filmant] n— выполнение This type offinishesfulfilsdifferent functions. 18. increase ['ipkriis] [in'kriis] nv — возрастание, увеличе­ ние; возрастать, увеличивать decrease['di:kri:s][,di:'kri:s] nv—уменьшение, сниже­ ние, падение; уменьшать, снижать, падать, убывать Anincreasein the volume ofbuilding can onlybe achieved by greater productivity. By using industrial methods of construction
UNIT б. BUILDING SCIENCE 123 the speed ofconstruction maybeconsiderably increased.Itispossible toconsiderablydecreasethebuilding costsbyusingprefabncation. 19. expand [iks'paend] v — расширять, увеличиваться в объеме expansion[ik'spaenjn] n—расширение, растягивание Thousands of country towns expandedinto great industrial or commercial centres. Thesite allowsforfurther expansionto double the present size ofthe factory. 20. displace [dis'pleis] v — выдавливать, вытеснять displacementn— перемещение, сдвиг, смещение The denser cold water sinkstodisplacethe heated water, which isforced to nse. We candescribequantitativelythe amount oflateral displacementofthe beam. 2. Read and translate the following international words. Look up their transcriptions in the dictionary if necessary. Mind the part of speech. Collection л, focus n v, phenomena n, optimize v, prevent v, specific, hyperstatic adj, permanent adj, service n, esthetics n, reaction n, neutralize v, equilibrium л, gravitational adj, term n, trend л, stress n, express v, compressive adj, oppose v, limit n, manner n, thermal adj. 3. M atch the words with the definitions below. a) tensile failure c) compressive strength e) tension g) shear stress i) yield strength b) tensile stress d) compressive failure 0 fatigue strength h) impact strength j) bnttle failure
1 2 4 Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей 1 the condition of being stretched 2. the ability of a material to resist shock loading 3 the resistance of a material to a force tending to tear it apart 4 the ability of a metal to tolerate gradual progressive force without permanent deformation 5 collapse caused by compression 6 the form of stress in a material that tends to produce cutting rather than stretching or bending 7. the strength of a substance under tension 8. a complete fracture of the specimen in a direction perpendicular to the direction of loading 9. the maximum stress a matenal can endure for a given number of cycles without failure 10. the ability of a material to resist forces attempting to crush it 4. Match the following English words and word combinations with the Russian equivalents. 1. fulfil 2. assess 3. dimension 4. deflection 5. displacement 6. implement 7. prevent 8 strength of materials 9. decrease 10. ductile failure 11. failure 12. capability 13 enable 14. withstand 15. bear a. прогиб, упругая деформация b. давать возможность c. выполнять, осуществлять d. разрушение, неисправность e. уменьшать, снижать f. оценивать g. вязкое разрушение h. противостоять, выдерживать i. способность, производительность j. поддерживать, служить опорой k. выполнять, исполнять l. сопротивление материалов т . сдвиг, смещение п. предотвращать, предохранять о размер, объем
иш6. BUILDING SCIENCE 125 5. Fill the gaps with the suitable words below. 1. a) compress b) compressible c) compressive d) compressibility e) compression f) compressor I.There are manyproblemsin which abeam is supported on a foundation exerting adistributive reaction on the beam ofintensity proportionalto the 2.In order to select the appropnate size of a for construction use, it is necessary to know what construction devices are to be powered by the compressed air. 3 building materials are used to reduce the pressurestransmittedto foundations and slabs. 4 . W ood is strong when we it vertically. 5. Bending occurs when a straight materialbecomes curved; one side squeezes together in compression, and the other side stretches apart in tension. 6 .A material which can resisthigh forces hastheproperty of high strength. II. a) expand b) expanse c) expansion d) expansible e) expansibility d) expansive 1.A resin composition containing less than 5percent by weight of wholly inorganic clayparticles is welldispersed. 2. Construction oftheportison avast of600 acres with aunique state-of-the-art cargo handling facilities. 3 . The application of concrete is the effective way to solve thedefect problems ofpiles. 4 . They studied the effects ofvariousfactors on the of concrete forlargedams. 5. Thismaterial can whenthe temperature nses or when the moisture content increases. 6 .This system isprovided to allow for of the water. 6. Read and translate thefollowinggroups of sentences paying attention to the words in italics which can function as a noun and a verb or an adjective, or a noun and an adjective or a participle, with the same form. Look up your dictionary ifnecessary.
126 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 1. a. A limiting straindefines the failure of reinforcement. b. A strainlimit of 1% should be applied. c. Ifthe stress is small, the matenal may straina little. 2. a. The strength properties ofthis type of steel m ay increase. b. No increasein the construction charges willbe made. c. Residential construction is on the increase. 3. a Storm caused a lot ofdamageto the house. b.The flood damageprevention measures should be taken. c. Earthquakes can damageunreinforced masonrybuildings. 4. a.A loadbearingwall camestheparts ofthehouse uponit. b.The columns bearingthe.load mustbeproperly located. c. A steelbeam bearingwasinstalled on concrete masonry. 5. a. The matenal was subjectedto the applied load. b.They subjectedthe beam to vanous tests. c. They tested the structures subjectedto wind forces. 7. Study the following patterns showing the ways some adjectives are formed from nouns or verbs. Complete the charts. Some of the missing words are from the texts of the Unit. Read and translate them. Use your dictionary to help you with the pronunciation. Pattern 19 JNoun + -al -» Adjective | The -a l suffix m eans oforconcerning. Example, addition —дополнение -» additional —дополни­ тельный Noun Adjective physics ______________________ practice ______________________
UNIT б . BUILDING SCIENCE 1 2 7 mechanics mathematics gravitation axis structure Pattern 20 I Noun/Verb + -ous - > Adjective | The -ous suffix means causingorhaving. Example, fame — известность - > famous— известный Noun/Verb Adjective advantage ____ ______ ____________ simultaneity ____ ______ ____________ continue _____ ______ _____ ______ vary ___________ ______ _____ Pattern 21 I Noun/Verb + -ary -> Adjective | The -aiy suffix means oforconcerning. Example,inflation —инфляция -> inflational — инфляци­ онный Noun/Verb Adjective supplement _ ______ __________ _____ custom ---------------------------------- volunteer ----------------------------------
128 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей imagine benefit Pattern 22 Noun/Veib + -аЫе/іЫе Adjective The -able/ible suffixes mean havingastatedquality or condition o r can be done. Example accept— принимать -> acceptable — приемлемый Noun/Verb Adjective compress _____________________ recover _____________________ accept _____________________ suit _____________________ flex _____________________ value _____________________ SECTION 2 GRAMMAR 8. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the forms and functions ofthe Present Participle. a) Attribute Example Theplayingboy ismy son. — Играющиймальчик — мой сын. The boyplayinginthegarden is my son. — Мальчик, играю­ щийвсаду, — мойсын.
UNIT 6. BUILDING SCIENCE 129 The bridge beingbuiltacross the river willbe verybig. — Мост, строящийся(которыйстроится)черезреку,будет очень боль­ шим. 1. Building science is the collection of scientific knowledge that focuses on the analysis and control of the physical phenomena affecting buildings. 2 This job being managed by the project manager and supervised engineer will be done on time. 3 . The strength of materialsgives the value ofthe bearing reactions ofthe hyperstatic structures. 4. Hydration involves many different reactions often occurring at the same time. 5 .Young’s modulus describes the tendency of an object to deform along an axis when opposing forces are applied along that axis. 6 The designbeing prepared by the highlyskilled experts’team willbe completed next month. b) Adverbial m odifier Example (While) readinghe was making some notes. — Читая, он де­ лал заметки. Havinglostthe key he couldn’t get into the house. — Потеря в ключ, он не мог попасть вдом Beingbuiltof wood the bridge couldn’t carry heavy loads. — Так как мост бш построен(будучипостроенным) из дерева, он не мог выдержать тяжелых нагрузок. Havingbeen translatedinto many languages Tolstoy’s books becameknown all overthe world. — Послетогокаккниги Тол­ стого былипереведенына многие языки, они стали известны во всем мире. 1. Ingeneral stones are used asbasic structural componentsin buildings, while mudis used to fillin the spacebetween, acting as a type of concrete and insulation. 2 . To perform successfully in the construction industry students must develop their skillsin the technical aspects of construction while applying usefulconstruction management practices and tools to maintain control and provide 5 Зак 312
130I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей optimal decisions. 3 . Having looked through all the documents and letters he called his secretary. 4 . Having been in the building and constructionbusinessfrom the verybeginning wehave much previous expenencefrom thebuildingpoint ofview. 5.Construction managers coordinate and supervise the construction process from the conceptual development stage through final construction, making sure that the project gets completed on time and within budget. 6. Having been repaired the device began working much better. 7. Having examined the relationship between stress and strain we determined the elastic modulus. 8 .When purchasing a new house the buyerhas lesslegalprotection than whenbuying a new car. 9. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the forms and functions of the Past Participle. a) Attribute Example Heshowed us some magazines receivedby theirlibrary. — Он показал нам журналы, полученныеихбиблиотекой. The telegram sentwas signedby the director. — Отправленная телеграммабыла подписанадиректором. There are a few broken chairs in the room. — В комнате не­ сколько сломанныхстульев. 1.The strain increases until the stresses are sufficientto neutralize the force applied, when the body is again in a condition of equilibrium. 2 . Strength of materials studies the mechanical properties of matenals used in the construction industry. 3 . We are going to studythe stress state causedbysqueezing the material. 4 The strength ofstructures ofequal cross sectional arealoaded in tension isindependent of cross section geometry. 5 . The elastic modulusisthe stress required to cause asampleofthe matenalto double in length. 6 . Increased strength and durability are also a part ofthedriveto reduce the environmental footpnnt ofthebuilt environment bythe efficient use ofresources.
UNIT б. BUILDING SCIENCE 131 b) Adverbial modifier Exam ple When questioned, Ididn’t know whatto answer. — Когда меня сталирасспрашивать, я не знал, что ответить. 1.Themodulus of rigiditydescnbes the tendency ofan objectto shear when acted upon bytheforces. 2 .Once certified, the engineer is designated the title of the professional engineer. 3. Design considerations will include strength, stiffness, and stability ofthe structure when subjected to loads which maybestatic, or dynamic. 4 When faced with unexpected events or delays, construction managers shouldbedecisive and work well underpressure. 10. Mind the use of the Present and Past Participles in the pairs of the following sentences. Read and translate them into Russian. Example The book written by this engineer describes new trends in construction. — Книга, написанная этим инженером, описы­ вает новые направления в строительстве. Thebookdescribingnew trendsin construction iswrittenbythis engineer. — Книга, описывающаяновые направления в стро­ ительстве, написанаэтим инженером. 1.Some types ofplasticsproduced at thisplant provide some decorative effects. Some types ofplasticsproviding some decorative effects are produced at this plant. 2 M any plants producing precast reinforced concrete are in operation in this country now. Many plants being in operation in this country now produce precast reinforced concrete. 3 . Microcomputers invented in the 1970shelp much in research work. Microcomputers helping muchin research work were invented in the 1970s. 4 . The report on new building methods madebyBobisbeingdiscussed now. Thereport on new building methods being discussed now was made by Bob.
1 3 2 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 5. M aterials behaving in this manner are called elastic. M aterials called elasticbehave in this manner. 11. Translate what is given in brackets using the Present and Past Participles. 1.The sheer size and scope ofthe construction industry means thatthe (сопровождающийся) economicimpact willbehuge. 2. While (выполняя) complex calculations we can apply computers. 3. (Послетого, как мне сказали) the title ofmy report on strength of materialsIdecided togoto thelibraryto work at it.4 .People (работающие) in their ownbusiness should calculate the cost of their own time (потраченное) in running the business. 5.Tensile stress isthe stress state (вызванный)byan (приложенный) load that tends to elongate the material in the axis ofthe (приложен­ ный) load. 6. (Выполнив) the terms ofthe contract they refused to do some otherjobs atthe construction site. 7 .The new housing project (строящийся) in this town will be in the form of a huge circle. 8. (Оценивая) delays in construction work, they can improve the way the construction team membersinteract. 9.(Выб­ рав) thegeneral contractor, the company must take steps to satisfy their needs. 10 The building costs largely depended on the (ис­ пользованный) matenals. 12. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the Absolute Participle Construction. Example The weather beingfine, we started for a walk. — Так как погодабылахорошая, то мы отправились на прогулку. Муsisterhaving comeback, I went to see her. — После того какмоясестравернулась, я пошел навестить ее. 1.All thingsbeing equal, concrete with a lower water-cement ration makes a stronger concrete than that with ahigherratio. 2.
UNIT б. BUILDING SCIENCE 133 Residential as well as all other types of construction generating a lotof waste, carefulplanningisneeded in this area 3.They finished the experiment, the result being quite satisfactory 4. The work having been finished, the workers left the construction site. 5.Most industries make use ofa variety ofmachines, each machine carrying out a different operation. 6 Some cement plants are very large, their annualproduction exceeding 3,000,000 tons ofcement. 7. Thenew methodshavingbeen introduced, the labourproductivity went up. 8 . The student knowing English well, the examination didnot lastlong.9 .An externalforcebeing applied, a deformation takes place. 10. The new method having been studied in detail, theplant management decided to introduceitat theplant. SECTION 3 READING AND SPEAKING 13. What do you know about strength of materials? Read the statements given below and say if they are true or false. If the statem ents are not true, make the necessary corrections. a) The strength of matenals is one of the fields of building science. b) The strength of materials only studies bearing reactions of structural systems. c) The strength of materials does not cover dimensions and choice of materials. d) A deformation takesplacewhen the materialisin a state of stress. e) Strain expresses the deformation change. f) Compressive stress elongates the material in the axis ofthe applied load. g) Tensile stress reduces the length ofthe materialin the axis of the applied load.
134I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей h) Shearstress causes opposing forcesto act alongparallellines of action. 1) Yield strength, compressive strength, tensile strength, fatigue strength, and impact strength are not the terms in the strength of materials. 14. Read Text 6A “Strength ofMaterials” and say ifyou are right or wrong. Discuss your answers with your groupmates or teacher. • TEXT 6A Strength of Materials Building science is the collection of scientific knowledge that focuses on the analysis and control of the physical phenomena affecting buildings. This includes the detailed analysis ofbuilding materials and building envelope systems. The practicalpurpose of building science is to provide predictive capability to optimize buildingperformance and understand orpreventbuildingfailures. Oneofthe fields ofbuilding scienceisthe strengthof materials. Itspurpose isto determine the dimensions ofthe constructionsin orderto resistto strains which theyhaveto withstand, or to check ifa specific construction is able to withstand certain strains. The strength of materials alsogives the value ofthebeanng reactions of thehyperstaticstructures. Itenables to ensure thegoodperformance of the beams under the permanent and service loads. Furthermore, this science studies the mechanical properties of materials usedin the construction industry. The strength of materialsis also the studyof dimensions and choice of materials to implement in a construction. To design a mechanical part, a structure, it is initially to imagine the forms and geometrical skeleton which fulfil the specific functions; HP A material loaded in a) compression, b) tension, c) shear.
UNIT б. BUILDING SCIENCE 135 then, it is to determine the quantities of matter necessary and sufficient to achieve these forms and to ensure a resistance without damage to the object with all the strainsitwillbe subjected to during its service. This dimensioning calls upon calculations that forecast theperformance ofthe object whosedesignmust combine thebest conditions of security, economy, and esthetics. In general, when an external force is applied to a body, a deformation takes place; this is called the strain. This deformation causes forces to be set up in the internal structure ofthe material, andthe materialisthen said to be in a state ofstress. The strain increasesuntil the resulting stresses are sufficient to neutralize the appliedforce when thebodyisagainin a condition ofequilibrium. Deformationofthe materialisthechangeingeometry when stressis applied in the form offorce loading, gravitational field, thermal expansion, etc. Deformation isexpressedbythedisplacementfield ofthe material. Strain or reduced deformation is a mathematical term to express the trend of the deformation change among the materialfield.For uniaxialloading —displacements of a specimen (forexample, a bar element) it is expressed as the quotient ofthe displacement and the length ofthe specimen. Deflection is a term to describe the magnitude to which a structural elementbends under a load. There are three kinds ofstresses: compressive, tensile and shear. Compressive stress isthe stress state caused by an applied load that acts to reduce the length ofthe materialin the axis ofthe applied load, in other words the stress state caused by squeezing the material. Compressive strength for matenals is generally higher than that oftensile stress. Tensile stress is the stress state caused by an appliedload thattendsto elongate the materialin the axis ofthe applied load, in other words the stress caused by pulling the matenal. The strength of structures of equal cross sectional area loaded in tension isindependent ofcross sectiongeometry. Shear stress isthe stress state caused byopposingforce acting alongparallel lines of action through the material.
136 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей There aresome strength terms in the strength of materials. Yield strength isthe lowest stress that givesperm anent deformation in a matenal.Compressive strength isa limit state of compressive stress that leads to compressivefailurein the manner ofductilefailure or in the manner ofbrittle failure. Tensile strength is a limit state of tensile stress that leads to tensile failure in the manner ofductile failure (yield as the first stage of failure, some hardening in the second stage and break after apossible neckformation) orin the manner of brittle failure (sudden breaking in some pieces with a low stress state). Fatigue strength is a measure ofthe strength of a matenal or a component under cyclicloading, and is usuallymore difficult to assess than the static strength measures. Impact strength is the capability of the material in withstanding by the suddenly applied loads. 15. Find inText 6A theparagraph saying about some strength terms used in the strength of m aterials and translate it into 16. Read aloud paragraph 2 ofText 6A. 17. Explain the following references. a)Itspurpose isto determinethedimensions ofthe constructions inorder to resist to strains which they have to withstand What does thepronoun itsreferto? b) //enables to ensure thegoodperformance ofthebeams under the perm anent and service loads. What doesthepronoun itreferto? c) thisscience studies the mechanical properties of materials used in the construction industry. What doesthe demonstrative adjective thisreferto9
UNIT 6. BUILDING SCIENCE 137 d) it is to determine the quantities of matter necessary and sufficientto achieve theseforms What does the demonstrative adjective theserefer to? e) thisis called the strain. Whatdoesthepronounthisreferto? f) itisexpressed as the quotient of the displacement and the length ofthe specimen. Whatdoesthepronoun itreferto? g) Compressive strength for matenals isgenerally higher than that of tensile stress. Whatdoesthepronounthatreferto? 18. Find in Text 6A some key words and expressions to speak about the strength of materials. Retell the Text in English. 19. Skim Text 6B “Stress-Strain Relations” and try to understand what it is about and what information is known to you. • TEXT 6B Stress-strain Relations Elasticity is the ability of a material to return to its previous shape after stress is released. In many materials, the relation between applied stress and the resulting strain is directly proportional to acertain limit, and agraph representing those two quantities is a straightline. Theslope ofthisline isknown asYoung’s modulus, or the modulus of elasticity. The modulus of elasticity is the mathematicaldescription of an object or substance tendency to be deformed elastically(i.e . non -permanently) when aforce is applied to it The elastic modulus of an object isdefined as the slope ofits stress-strain curve in the elastic deformation region
138I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей ^ stress strain Wherelambdaisthe elastic modulus; stress istheforce causing thedeformation dividedbythe area to which the force is applied; and strain isthe ratio ofthe change causedbythe stressto the original state ofthe object. An alternative definition isthat the elastic modulus isthe stress requiredto cause asampleofthe matenalto doublein length.This is not realisticfor most materials as the value isgreater than theyield stress ofthe material orthepoint where elongation becomes nonlinear, but some may find this definition more intuitive. Specifying how stress and strain are to be measured, including directions, allowsfor many types of elastic moduli to be defined. The threeprimary ones are: - Young’s modulusdescribes tensile elasticityorthe tendency ofan objectto deform along an axiswhen opposing forcesareapplied along that axis; itisdefined as the ratio oftensile stressto tensile strain. It is often referred to simply as the elastic modulus. - The shear modulus or modulus of rigidity descnbes the tendency of an object to shear when acted uponby opposing forces; it isdefined as shear stress over shear strain. The shear modulus ispart ofthe derivation ofviscosity. - The bulk modulus describes volumetric elasticity, or the tendency of an object to deform in alldirections when uniformly loaded in all directions; it is defined as volumetnc stress over volumetnc strain, and is the inverse of compressibility. Thebulk modulusis an extension ofYoung’s modulus to threedimensions. Plasticity or plastic deformation is the opposite of elastic deformation and is accepted as unrecoverable strain. Plastic deformation is retained even after the relaxation ofthe applied stress. Most materials in the linear-elastic category are usually capable of plastic deformation. Brittle materials, like ceramics, do not experience any plastic deform ation and will fracture under relatively low stress. Matenals such as metals usually expenence a small amount ofplastic deformation before failure while soft or ductile polymers willplastically deform much more
20. Give a brief overview of the structure and contents ofText 6B. 21. Answer the following questions. a) What is elasticity? b) What is the type ofthe line representing applied stress and the resulting strain? c) What are thedefinitions ofmodulus ofelasticity? d) WhatdoYoung’s modulus, the shear modulus andthebulk modulusdescribe? e) What isplastic deformation? f) What materials experienceplastic deformation9 22. Read Text 6C “Nanotechnology and Construction” and answer the questions. Discuss your answers withyour groupmates. a) What is nanotechnology? b)Whyisthe size ofparticles soimportant in nanotechnology? c) Is nanotechnology a new science? d)Whatprospects does nanotechnology offer? e)What will constructionbenefitfrom nanotechnology? 0 What nano-sizedparticiplesare applied to building matenals? g)What holdsback the development ofnanotechnology? h) When will the advances in the use of nanotechnology arrive? • TEXT 6C Nanotechnology and Construction Nanotechnology isthe use ofvery smallparticles of material either bythemselves or bytheir m anipulation to create new large scale materials. The size ofthe particles is very important because at the lengthscale ofthe nanometre, 10-9 m, the properties ofthe matenal actuallybecome affected. The precise size at which these changes are manifested variesbetween materials, but is usuallyin the order
140[Английскийязы к д л я студентовстроительныхспециальностей of 100 nm orless. Nanotechnology isnot a new science and itis not a new technology. Itisrather an extension ofthe sciences and technologies that have already been in development for many years and itisthelogicalprogressionoftheworkthathasbeendoneto examine the nature ofour world at an ever smaller scale. A nanometre is a billionth of a metre. The recent developments in the study and m anipulation of materials and processes at the nanoscale offer the tantalizing prospect ofproducing new macro materials, properties and products. The construction business willinevitablybe abeneficiary ofthis nanotechnology, in fact itisalreadyin thefields ofconcrete, steel and glass Concrete is stronger, more durable and more easily placed, steel tougher and glass self-cleaning. Increased strength and durabilityare also apart ofthednveto reducethe environmental footprint ofthebuiltenvironmentbythe efficient use of resources. This is achievedboth priorto the construction processbya reduction inpollution during the production of materials (e.g . cement) and also in service through efficient use of energy due to advancements in insulation. Two nano-sized particles that stand out in their application to construction materials are titanium dioxide (Ti02) and carbon nanotubes(CNTs) Theformerisbeing usedforitsabilityto break down dirt or pollution and then allow it to be washed offby ram water on everything from concrete to glass and the latter isbeing used to strengthen and monitor concrete CNTshave many more properties, apart from exceptional strength, that are being researched in computing, aerospace and other areas and the construction industry willbenefitdirectly or indirectly from those advancements as well. Cost and the relatively small number ofpractical applications for now hold back much of the prospects for nanotechnology. However, construction also tends to be afragmented,low research onented and conservative endeavour and this plays against its adoption of new technologies, especially ones that appear so far removed from its core business. Materials are construction core
UNIT 6. BUILDING SCIENCE 1 4 1 business and the prospects for more changes are significant in the not too distant future. In fact, the researchers surveyed and predicted that many advances would arrive within fiveyears. The sheer size and scope ofthe construction industry means that the accompanying economic impact will be huge. In order to capitalize on the effects of nanotechnology on thebusiness, however, much morefunding for construction related research, increased interdisciplinary working between researchers and communication between those researchers and industry is needed. SECTION 4 LISTENING AND SPEAKING 23. Listen to theText “The ElasticTheory ofStructures”. a) Answer the questions that follow. 1. What was a significant achievement of the first industnal age? 2. What was itused for? 3. The namesof somefamous scientists are mentioned in the text:L Euler, Th. Young, L. Navier, S. Whipple, A. Ritter, J.C . Maxwell, and O. Mohr. What contributions did they make to the elastictheory ofstructures? 4. What were the structures ofthe 19th century designed and fabricated with? 5. Why did the elastic theory form the basis of the structural analysis untilWorld War II? b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 6A of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about the elastic theory of structures.
142IАнглийскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей d) Give some examples of the use of the elastic theory of structures from your own experience. 24. Listen to the Text “Nanotechnology's for Real in the Building Industry” a) Complete the sentences according to theText. 1. Nanotechnology is sometimes___________as all____________, w ith little real-w orld___________. 2. Take the __________ that we live and___________in, forinstance. 3. You will find ___________ used to create stronger steel, ___________ glass, solar-collecting fabrics, and ev en____________ concrete 4. Solar-collecting___________ is the first of a new wave of building components that___________solar radiation into___________ . 5. __________ steel is more corrosion_____________ than conventional steel, and can reduce___________costsby up to 50%. 6 Smog-eating concrete isproducedby___________a nanolayer oftitanium dioxide to__________ , which triggers a catalytic reaction that__________ . m a ny pollutants in contact with the___________. 7. At the very least, these materials ___________ building __________ costs, leaving more moneyforother___________ , and they can help clean up the___________. 8. And for every nanomaterial ___________ today, there are ___________ s e v e nty more in ___________ and development, meaning that building___________ and architecture are in for some big ___________ thanks to small technology. b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 6B of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about nanotechnology.
UNIT 7 STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS SECTION 1 VOCABULARY AND WORD STUDY 1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary to the text “Structural Systems” and translate the given sentences. 1. cladding n—облицовка, обшивка(стен здания) exterior cladding [ik'stiaria] — наружная обшивка These angles provide a space to fix the top of the cladding. There are many different styles and m aterials in exteriorcladding. 2. laminated veneer lumber['laemineitidѵэ'піэ] —ЛВЛ -брус, конструкционный материал, изготовленный по техно­ логии склейки нескольких слоев шпона plywood['plaiwud]п—фанера, клееная фанера Laminated veneer lumber(LVL) offers several advantages over typical milled lumber: it is stronger, straighter, and more uniform. Thebase is madefrom top qualityplywoodwith a rounded edge. 3. span n v— пролет; перекрывать In thisbuilding steelbeamshavebeen usedbecause long spans are involved.Theprecast concrete panels spanbetween thebeams.
144I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 4. joistf'djoist] я —опорнаябалка, перекладина, ригель I-joist я — двутавр, двутавровый профиль floorjoist — балка пола, балка междуэтажного пере­ крытия openwebjoist —балочнаяферма woodjoist —деревяннаябалка The walls support thejoists which carry the floor. I-joists are known for their value when it comes to size, strength, and reliability. The spaces for thefloorjoists can be clearly seen. The mam function ofanopenwebjoististo providedirect supportfora roofor afloordeck andtotransfertheloadimposed onthedeckto the beams and columns. Woodjoists should not be built into separating walls. 5. align [э'іаіп] v — выравнивать, центровать alignment я — выравнивание, центровка The resultofthese shearing strains isthat thefibersbecom e aligned at right angles to the shear stress. Fine I-beam alignmentin high- risebuilding construction was required. 6. glue [glu:] я v — клей; клеить glued laminatedbeam — клеёный брус, многослойный клеёный брус, клеёный профилированный брус Theforce on one sheet ofwood istransmitted through theglueto anothersheet of wood.The thin sheets ofwood aregluedtogether. 7. fabricate ['faebrikeit] v — производить, изготовлять prefabricate v— изготавливать заводским способом prefabrication я — заводское изготовление prefabricated adj— сборный, готовый The new cement makes itpossible tofabricatereinforced concrete products of high strength. Industrialised building means a high degree ofprefabrication applied to domestic or other construction so asto reduce siteworkto minimum. Cranes are used forassembling large-sizeprefabricatedelements.
UNIT 7. STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 1 4 5 8. roof truss — стропильная ферма This is a high sloping ceiling attached directly to the roof trusses and rising all the way to the top of the house. 9. strut n — стойка, распорка, сжатый элемент (конст­ рукции) lumber strut —деревянная стойка The formwork is put on the strut and the whole is concreted. 10. purlin ('pa: lin] n — прогон, обрешетина The helicopter was used to hoist and place in position prestressed concrete purlins. 11. brace ['breis] n v —растяжка, скоба, перекладина, стой­ ка, распорная балка; скреплять, связывать, придавать жесткость bracing п — связи жесткости, система связей, креп­ ление The paper describes the economical placing o f braces in the walls of a rectangular building. We had to brace the walls when we put the new roof on. During this phase the bracing is fixed. 12. shape ['Jeipj n — профиль, форма T shape n —тавровый профиль channel ['tfaenl] n — швеллер, швеллерный профиль angle [ aerjl] n — уголковый профиль, уголок It is climate which determines the shape and construction of most buildings. The roof and floor frames are made up o f beams and channels. Steel angles are fixed across the ends o f the beams. 13. weld v — сваривать, варить welding n — сварка The bottom of each column is welded to a base plate. Welding can be done in many different environments, including open air, under water and in outer space.
146 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 14. rod п — стержень, прут, рейка Therodsare placed nearthebottom ofthe concretebeam. 15. in-situ concrete [m'sitju:] —бетон, уложенный на строй­ площадке; монолитныйбетон precast reinforced concrete — сборный железобетон A bnck is not fabricated on the site as т-situconcrete, but is prefabricated. It isprecastreinforcedconcretethat provided the high scale of construction in this country. 16. exceed [ik'si.d] v — превышать, превосходить Thegarage must not exceed30mi in thefloor area. 17. slab n— плита, панель concrete slab —бетонная плита, бетонная панель floorslab — плита (панель) перекрытия, плита настила пола hollow slab ['Ьэіэи] — пустотная плита Theslabsact as permanent formwork and provide verygood insulation. A few weeks later, the concrete slabs were laid across the tunnelto form the roof. Thefloorslabsmeasure 3 x 5 m and theyhavebeen mounted simultaneouslywith the main structure of the building. 18. framing ['freimirj] — каркас, рама, деревянная конст­ рукция frame(framing)construction — каркасная конструкция, рамная конструкция balloonframing[ba'hr.n] —деревянныйбалочно-стоеч­ ный каркас(здания) Since the early 1920s, almost all homes have been built using w ood framing construction. Balloonframmg'HZ& employed in m any two-storey housesbefore 1930.
UNIT 7 . STRUCTURAL ELEMENTSJ 147 19. bolt ['bault] n v — болт; скреплять, стягивать болтами anchorbolt['aspкэ] — анкерный болт bolted connection — болтовое соединение Each base plate isfixed to a concrete column base by two bolts The beams are boltedto steel columns. 20. girderf'ga.da] n— главная балка, балочнаяферма Thegirders support smaller beams. 2. Read and translate the following international words. Look up their transcriptions in the dictionary if necessary. Mind the part of speech. Standard n, base n v, constant adj, economical adj,profile n, catastrophic adj, configuration n, dominant adj, horizontal adj, universal adj, radius n, moment n, result n v, condition n, distribution n, neutral adj, cylindrical adj,position n v, accuracy n, stable adj, exclusively adv, stable adj, resistance n, platform n, section n, double v, barrier n 3. Match the pairs of synonyms from A and В and translate A 1. manufacture 2. bar 3. facing 4. framework 5. form 6. vault 7. screw 8. line arrangement 9. preassembly 10. soldering В a. span b. prefabncation c. fabricate d. bolt e. welding f. alignment g. framing h. shape i. rod j. cladding
148 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 4. Match the verb on the left with a suitable item on the right. Use each item once only. 1 glue a. to a centre line of a wall 2 exceed b. a column to the steel channel 3 brace c. a concrete slab on the ground 4 align d. wood sheets together 5 install e. a distance of 1 metre 6 weld f. angles to connecting plates 7 span g. the length ofthebeam 8 cast h. a house 9. bolt i. a girder to support smallerbeams 10. prefabricate j. masonry wallsduring construction 5. Make the following sentences complete by translating the words and phrases in brackets. 1.There is minimalfnctionbetween thebolt and the wood in the (болтовое соединение). 2.With the panels made of(сбор­ ный железобетон),buildings up to 5 floorshigh canbe constructed without columns or beams. 3 . It is seen as an easier installation and abetter solutionfor supporting roofs as opposed to the use of dimensional(деревянные стойки) and(обрешетина) asbracing. 4. А (швеллер) is widely used in building practice as a beam. 5.Steel is usedfor(каркасная конструкция)becauseithashigh tensile and compressive strength. 6 .(Деревянная балочно-сто­ ечная конструкция) of residential and commercial buildings increased in the twentieth century and continues to be the standard building form. 7 . Steel (уголки) tie the frame together and also provide a place to fix the top of the cladding. 8 . (Пролет) is the clear distance between the supports of an arch, beam of (стро­ пильная ферма).9 .A concrete (плита перекрытия) wasputin place. 10 . (Монолитный бетон) is strong, durable, stable, readilyavailable and relatively economic in terms of construction
UNIT 7 . STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 1 4 9 and life time maintenance. 11 The thickness of (фанера) used should notbelessthan6 mm in thistypeof shutter. 12.Theroof consists of a waterproof covering and a roof structure, which is made oftimber(опорная балка) and wood-wool slabs 6. Read and translate the following word combinations which come from the texts of the Unit. Mind the use of nouns as attributes in preposition. Look up your dictionary if necessary. Wood products, roof construction, laminated veneer lumber functions, support walls, wood I-joists, roof rafters, ceilingjoists, a standard truss, top and bottom chords, concrete floor slabs, hand-held wrenches, a beam and girder system, wood and steel construction, handmade timberformwork,floor elements, metal connectors, structural compression members, steel-frame buildings, abeam profile, gravity loads, high strength steel tendons (пучковая арматура), moment carrying capacity, a highwaybndge, a beam force, a beam support, a force or flexibility method, a direct stiffness method, steel trusses. 7. Study the followingpatterns showing the ways som e adjectives are formed from verbs and nouns. Complete the charts. Some of the missing words are from the texts of the Unit. Read and translate them. Use your dictionary to help you with the pronunciation. Pattern 23 Verb + -ent/-ant -> Adjective The -ent/-ant suffixes mean havingquality. Example:differ — различаться -> different — различный
150I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальноггей Verb depend correspond dominate exist distance Adjective Pattern 24 Verb + -ive —>Adjective The -ive suffix m e ans having a tendency, character, or quality. Example:construct — строить -> constructive — строи­ тельный Verb Adjective produce -- --- ---- ---------- ---- --- --- ---- - act - --- ---------- --- --- --- -- --- --- --- attract - --- ---------- --- --- --- -- --- --- --- create - --- ---------- --- --- --- -- --- --- --- effect ------- ---- --- ---- --- ---- ------ --- Pattern 25 Verb + -y — >Adjective The -y suffix m eansfull or converted with, tending to, like or typical of. Example:sun — солнце -> sunny — солнечный
им и 7. STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 151 Verb Adjective cloud _________________ m ight _______ ________ __ worth _____________ ____ smoke _______ ________ __ SECTION 2 GRAMMAR 8. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the forms and functions of the Gerund. a) Subject Example Smokingis not allowed here. — Курить (курение) здесь не разрешается. 1. Knowing English is helpful for any building engineer. 2. Cutting stones and timbersbecame possible with the invention of tools. 3. Learning to use a computer is important for every civil engineer. 4 .Adding heatto a substance does not always cause a rise ofitstemperature. 5. Maintainingthe equipmentingood condition helpsstudentsto make experiments well. b) Part of a Predicate Example His greatest pleasure is readingbooks. — Самоебольшоеудо­ вольствие для него — это чтение(читать)книг(и). 1.In Russia, mostofthehousesbuiltafterWorldWar11were big, usually 5-10 stories high, with small apartments. In these boroughs, thegoal was saving space and creating as m any apartments
152I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей as possible. 2 . Seeing is believing. 3 . The most common floor finishiscarpeting, most of whichis now made of syntheticfibres. 4. Our aim isfinding new waysofusing this materialin thebuilding industry. 5 .The problem to be discussed is making a new program for a computer. c) Direct Object Example Ilike readmgbooks. — М не нравится читать (чтение) книги. Tom likes being read such books. — Том любит, когда ему читаюттакие книги. Irememberhavingseenthisfilm. — Я помню, чтоя смотрел этот фильм Irememberhavingbeentoldaboutthisfilm. — Я помню, что мнерассказывалиоб этом фильме. 1.At the building site, precast members arejoined togetherby a number ofmethods, including weldingtogethermetal connectors cast into them or pouring a layer ofin situ concrete on top of floor members, bonding them together. 2 . If you like wearing highheelsandbeautifulclothes, you may notbehappy on abuilding site. 3 . They expected being given further assistance. 4 . Most local authorities started providing social housing, mainly forelderly people with low incomes. 5 . He remembers having been shown this project. d) Indirect Object Example I am pleased with his learningEnglish. — Я доволен тем, что он изучаетанглийский язык. We are interested inbeinginvitedto the first night. — Мы за­ интересованы в том, чтобынаспригласилина премьеру. Не reproached himselfforhavingsaidit. — Он упрекал себя за то, что сказал это. Не was surprised athavingbeen asked about it. — Он был удивлен, чтоего спросилиоб этом.
UNIT7 . STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 153 1. The municipal engineer serves local or state government directly in planning and supervising the construction and management ofwater-supplyand sewage-disposal systems, roads and bndges, public-transport systems, publicbuildings, and many other significantfeatures of modem life. 2 . Myfriend isgood at speakingEnglish andGerman. 3 .WhenI was at school,Ithought ofworking inconstruction. 4 .Thesedecisions are connected with planning, organizing, directing and controlling the work to be done. 5 . The investors insisted on being informed about the financialposition ofthe projectthey supported. e) Attribute Example Idon’t likehis manner ofreading. — Мнененравится его манера чтения. 1. It is seen as an easier installation and a better solution for supporting roofs as opposed to the useoflumber struts andpurlins as bracing. 2. There are three historically common methods of framing a house. 3 . The task of building the project is the responsibility of a firm of contractors. 4 . Civil engineering is the profession ofdesigmng and executing structural worksthat servethe generalpublic. 5 . Mathematical methodsfordetermining the beam forces include the moment distribution method, the force or flexibility method and the direct stiffness method. f) Adverbial M odifier Example We ennch ourknowledgeby readingbooks. — Мы обогаща­ ем свои знания, читая (чтением)книги. Не entered the room withoutbeingnoticed. — Он вошел в ком­ н а т у незамеченным. 1. Glued laminated beams are created by glueing the faces together to create beams. 2 . The energy effectiveness of stone is
154I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей considered abigdraw-back, as stone ishard to keep warm without using large amounts of heating resources. 3 . For moving smaller volumes ofpeople and freight, hydraulic elevators are used. 4 .After hardening, thefloor surfaceis machme polished to expose the marble chips. 5 . The lightest and most efficient structural shapeisthebar joist, a standard truss made with angles for the top and bottom chords, joined by welding to a web made of a continuous bent rod.6 .Theconceptofa staticallydeterminate structure — thatis, a structure whoseforces couldbedeterminedfrom Newton’s laws of motion alone — was set forth by Otto Mohr in 1874, after havingbeen used intuitively forperhaps 40 years. 9. Use the Gerund ofthe verbsinbrackets. Define thefunctions of the Gerund and translate their sentences. 1.Thegovernment created companiesthat employedpeople in (to build)dams and roads, houses and parks. 2 .Weknew nothing about his (to have been sent) to New York. 3. There is a big difference between (build) a house and (design) a computer system. 4 . Building isthe process of(construct)buildings asdistinct from the art or science of(design)buildings, which is architecture. 5.Some or allthejointsbetween thebeams and columns are rigidly joined togetherby (weld) the steel or (pour) the concrete in situ. 6. They began (talk) about the state of the building market. 7. (Load) heavy weights requires great skill. 8 . He is proud of (havewon)in the chesstournament. 9 . In (proportion) the mix, the aggregates are graded in size. 10. Asbestos is capable of (withstand)veryhightemperatures, and atthe same time (deflect) heat. 11 .The lightest and most efficient structural shapeisthebar joist, a standard truss made with angles on the top and bottom chords, joinedby (weld)to a web of a continuousbent rod. 10. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the verbal noun. Example There are three turnings to the right.
UNIT7 . STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 155 Mysisterdoesthe cookingin the house. The makingof concrete is difficult. Themeat willbefine with slow cooking. This writingishard to read. Ihavedone some shoppingthismorning. I. In industrialized countries the mixing and delivery ofliquid concrete to building sites have been mechanized. Ifthe span is larger, the increasing load requires a local thickening of the slab around the columns. 2 .Theprogram focuses on the understanding of construction technology, construction management and production management processes. 3 . Ifthe span is larger, the increasing load requires some thickening of the slab around the columns. 4 . It is now very difficult to find cheap housing for rent. 5 . Wall sheathing, usually a plywood or other laminate, is usually applied to the framing prior to erection, thus eliminating the need to scaffold. 6 .Thiseccentric loading creates an internal moment, and, inturn, increasesthe moment carrying capacityof the beam. 7 . Lintels are the horizontal members placed over window, door and other openings to carry loads to the adjoining studs. 8 .The coming ofthe industrial age marked a major change in the role ofthe building engineer. II. Find the sentences in which the -ing form is a) a verbal noun or b) a gerund. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1.The piles are put in place by driving them into the ground withlarge mechanical hammers. 2 . The development ofbronze, and lateriron, technologyin thispenodled to the making ofmetal tools for working wood, such as axes and saws. 3 . The drawings were erased during thefinalfinishing ofthe wall surfaces. 4 . Portland cement is easily manufactured by burning shale and limestone. 5.Openings were cut throughthe framing and sheathing as required. 6.The average waiting time for an elevator between pressing the call button and amval mustbelessthan 30 secondsin an office
156], 156 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей building and less than 60 seconds in an apartment building. 7 Adding sound-absorbent materialto a hallimprovesitforspeech but detracts from its musical qualities. 8 . In buildings with fully controlled atmospheres, doubleglazingis common to reduce heat transfer and both interior and extenor condensation on theglass. 9 Exterior wall studs are the vertical members to which the wall sheathing and cladding are attached. 10 Trusses arehollowed-out in which the stresses are channeled into slender linear members made of rolled shapes that are joined by welding orbolting into stable triangular configurations. 12, Compare the -ing forms — the Gerund, the Verbal Noun and the Present Participle in the following sentences. In every case state the subject and the predicate. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. Membersthat spanfloors and roofs are usuallypretensioned, another prestressing technique, which is similar in principle to post-tensiomng. 2 .A beam is a structural element that iscapable ofwithstanding loadprimarilyby resistingbending 3.The making ofclearplate glass wasperfected inthe late 19th century.4 Under gravity loads, the original length ofthe beam is slightly reduced to enclose a smaller radius arc at the top ofthe beam, resulting in compression. 5.With the coming ofbuilding science, there was a furtherdivision oflabourinthe designprocess. 6 .Balloonframing using a technique suspending floorsfrom the walls was common until the late 1940s. 7 . Framing is a building technique based around structural members whichprovide a stableframeto which interior and exterior wall coverings are attached and coveredby a roofcomprisinghorizontal ceilingjoists and sloping rafters (together forming a truss stmcture). 8 . A precise theoretical understanding ofthe truss, and major use ofitinbuildings, did not come until the 19th century. 9 . The standard rolled shapes are frequently used as beams and columns, the wide flange, or W shape, being the most common. 10. Platform framing often forms wall sections
UNIT 7 . STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS horizontally on the sub-floorprior to erection, easingpositioning of studs and increasing accuracy while cutting the necessary manpower. 11 . In Egypt the extracting, moving, and working of stone were costly processes, and thequarrying of stone was a state monopoly. 13. Before you read Text 7A “StructuralSystems”, discuss the following questions with your groupmates or teacher. a)Do youknow what structural systems are9 b)Whatparts ofabuilding canbe madefrom wood? c) How does laminated veneerlumberfunction? d) What are I-joists used for? e)What advantagesdo manufactured trusseshave? f)Whyissteel one ofthe major structural materials9 g)What structural shapesdo youknow? h) How are steel frames erected at the building site? i)What is in situ concrete used for? j)What is the oldest framing system? k) What is pretensioning? l)What methods are used tojoin precast elements together? m)Whatisthedominantform ofconstructioninRussia9 14. Read Text 7A to find out if your answers are right or wrong. The structures ofbuildings are mostly skeleton frames of various types. New domestic housing in many parts ofthe world today is SECTION 3 READING AND SPEAKING • TEXT 7A Structural Systems
158I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей commonlymadefrom timber-framed construction. Woodproducts are becoming abiggerpart ofthe construction industry.They may be usedinboth residential and commercialbuildings as structural and aesthetic materials. Inbuildings made ofothermatenals, wood is still found as a supporting material, especially in roof construction, in interiordoors and theirframes, and as exterior cladding. Laminated veneerlumberfunctionsasbeamsto provide support over large spans, such as removed support walls and placeswhere dimensional lumber is not sufficient, and also in areas where a heavyload isbearing from afloor, wall or roof above on a short span. Wood I-joists are used forfloorjoists on upperfloors. They are engineered forlong spans and are doubled up in placeswhere a wallwillbe aligned overthem. Gluedlaminated beams are created byglueing the facestogether to create beams. By glueing multipie, common sized piecesoflumbertogether act as one largerpieceof lumber. Manufactured trussesareused inhome construction asa pre-fabricated replacement for roof rafters and ceilingjoists. It is seen as an easierinstallation and abetter solution for supporting roofs as opposed to the use oflumber struts and purlins as bracing. Steel is one ofthe major structural materialsinbuildings. It isa strong and stiff material. It can be quickly fabncated and erected. The lightest and most efficient structural shape is the bar(or open web)joist, a standard truss made with anglesfor the top and bottom chords, joined by welding to a web made of a continuous bent rod. It is used almost exclusively tosupportroofsand can span up to 45 metres. Thestandard rolled shapes are frequently used as AsteelI-beam,in thiscase beams and co,umns’ the Wlde usedto support woodbeams flanBe’ or W shaPe- bein8 the inahouse. most common. Where steel
UNIT7 . STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 159 beamssupport concrete floor slabspoured onto a metal deck, they can be made to act compositelywith the concrete. Steel columns arejoined to foundations withbase plates welded tothecolumns andheldbyanchorboltsembeddedintheconcrete. The erection of steel frames at thebuilding site can proceed very rapidly,because allthe pieces can be handled by cranes and allthe bolted connections canbe made swiftlybyworkers withhand-held wrenches. Reinforced concrete is also a major structural material in buildings. In situ concrete is used forfoundations and for struc­ tural skeleton frames. Theoldest framing system is thebeam and girder system, whose form was derived from wood and steel construction: slabsrest on beams, beams rest on girders, andgirders rest on columns in a regular pattern. This system needs much handmade timberformwork, and in economies wherelabouris expensive other systems are employed.Oneisthepanjoist system, a standardizedbeam and girder system of constant depth formed with prefabricated sheet-metal forms. The simplest and most economical floor system is the flat plate where a plain floor slab rests on columns spaced apart. Ifthe spanislarger, the increasing load requires a local thickening of the slab around the columns. Concrete columns are of rectangular or circular profile and are cast in plywood or metal forms. The reinforcing steel never exceeds 8percent ofthe cross-sectional area to guard against catastrophic brittle failure in case of accidental overloading. Precast concrete structural members are fabricated under controlled conditions in afactory. Members that span floors and roofs are usually pretensioned, another prestressing technique, which is similar in principle to post-tensioning. Precast prestressed floor elements are made in a number of configurations. These include beams of rectangular cross section, hollow floor slabs, and single- and double-stem T shapes. Precast concrete columns are not usually prestressed and have projecting shelves to receive floormembers. At the building site, precast members are joined together by a number of methods, including welding together
160 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей metal connectors cast intothem orpounng alayerofin situ concrete on top of floor members, bonding them together. Precast prestressed construction iswidelyused, and itisthe dominantform of construction in Russia and Eastern Europe 15. Find in Text 7A the paragraph saying about reinforced concrete regarded as one of the major structural materials in buildings and translate it into Russian. 16. Read aloud paragraph 6 of Text 7A. 17. Explain the following references. a) They may be used in both residential and commercial buildings as structural and aesthetic matenals. Whatdoesthepronountheyreferto? b) Theyare engineered forlong spans and are doubled up in placeswhere a wall willbe aligned overthem. Whatdoesthepronountheyreferto? c) Itis a strong and stiff material. Whatdoesthepronoun itreferto? d)Itcan be quicklyfabricated and erected. Whatdoesthepronounitreferto9 e)Itisused almost exclusivelyto support roofs Whatdoesthepronoun itreferto? 0 theycanbe made to act compositelywith the concrete. Whatdoesthepronountheyreferto? g) These include beams of rectangular cross section, hollow floorslabs, and single- and double-stem T shapes Whatdoesthepronounthesereferto?
UNIT7. STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 161 18. Underline or mark the main ideas of Text 7A and retell it in English. 19. Skim Text 7B “Beams” and try to understand what it is about and what information is known to you. •TEXT 7В Beams A beam is a structural element that iscapable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. The bending force induced into the material ofthebeam as a result ofthe external loads and external reactions to theseloadsis called abending moment. Beamsgenerally carry verticalgravitationalforcesbut can also beusedto carryhonzontalloads(i.e . loadsdue to an earthquake or wind). The loads carried by a beam are transferred to columns, walls, or girders, which then transferthe force to adjacent structural compression members. Beamsarecharacterizedbytheirprofile(the shape oftheir cross- section), their length, and their material. In contemporary construction, beams aretypicallymade ofsteel, reinforced concrete orwood.One ofthemost commontypesofsteelbeamistheI- beam orwide-flange beam (also known as a universalbeam or, for stouter sections, a universal column). This is used in steel- framebuildings and bridges. Othercommonbeam profiles are the C-channel, the hollow structural sectionbeam, thepipe, and the angle. Internally, beams experience compressive, tensile and shear stresses as a result ofthe loads applied to them. Typically, under gravity loads, the originallength ofthe beam is slightly reduced to enclose a smaller radius arc at the top of the beam, resulting in compression, while the same onginalbeam length atthebottom of the beam is slightly stretched to enclose a larger radius arc, and so isundertension. Above the supports, thebeam isexposed to shear stress. 6 Зак 312
162 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей There are some reinforced concrete beams that are entirely in compression. Thesebeams are known asprestressed concrete beams, and arefabncatedto produce a compression morethan the expected tension underloading conditions. High strength steel tendons are stretched whilethebeam iscast overthem. Then, when the concrete has begun to cure, the tendons are released and the beam is immediately under eccentnc axial loads. This eccentric loading creates an internal moment, and, in turn, increasesthe moment carrying capacityofthebeam. They are commonlyused on highway bridges. Mathematical methodsfordetermining thebeam forces(internal forcesofthe beam and the forces that are imposed on the beam support) include the moment distribution method, the force or flexibility method and the direct stiffness method. Mostbeamsin reinforced concrete buildings have rectangular cross sections, but the most efficient cross section is a universal beam. A universalbeam is onlythe most efficient shape in one direction ofbending-up anddownlooking at theprofile as an I. If thebeam isbent side to side, itfunctionsasan H whereitisless efficient. The most efficient shape forboth directions in 2D isa box(a square shell), howeverthe most efficient shapeforbending in any direction is a cylindrical shell or tube. Efficiency means that forthe same crosssectional area(volume ofbeam perlength) subjected to the same loading conditions, the beam deflects less. Other shapes, like L (angles), C (channels) or tubes, are also used in construction when there are special requirements. 20. Give a briefoverview oftbe structure and contents ofText7B. 21. Relate each heading to the corresponding paragraph of Text 7B. a) Beam profiles. b) Beam forces. c)Abending moment.
UNIT 7 . STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 163 d) Beam shapes. e)The stresses experienced byabeam. f) The loads carried by abeam. g)Prestressed concrete beams. 22. Read Text 7C “Framing Construction” and answer the questions. Discuss your answers with your groupmates. a)What sort ofbuilding technique isframing? b)What membersdoes wallframing include? c)What are the common methods offraming? d)What ispost andbeam framing characterizedby? e)What is specific ofballoon framing? f)What does platform framing consist in? g) Why isa multiplestudpost used at extenor comers? h) What supports the upper floors, ceiling and roof? i)What are loadbeanng and non-loadbearing walls? j)What are lintels constructed of? k) When are the assembled sections nailed together? • TEXT 7C Framing Construction Framing isabuilding techniquebased on structural members which provide a stable frame to which interior and exterior wall coverings are attached and coveredby a roofcomprising horizontal ceilingjoists and sloping rafters (togetherforming a truss structure) or manufactured pre-fabricated roof trusses — all of which are covered by various sheathing materials to giveweather resistance. Wall framing in house construction includes the vertical and horizontal members of extenor walls and interiorpartitions, both of bearing walls and non-bearing walls. Studs, wall plates and lintels serve as a nailingbase for all covering material and support the upperfloorplatforms, whichprovide the lateral strength along a wall.The platforms maybe the boxed structure of a ceiling and 6*
1 6 4 | Английский язы кдля студентов строительных специальностей roof, or the ceiling and floorjoists of the storey above. There are three historicallycommon methods offraming ahouse. — Post and beam framingisnow usedinbarn construction. — Balloon framing using a technique suspending floors from the walls was common until the late 1940s, but since that time platform framing has become the predominant form of house construction. — Platform framing often forms wallsections horizontally on the sub-floor prior to erection, easing positioning of studs and increasing accuracy while cutting the necessary manpower. The top and bottom plates are end-nailed to each stud with two nails. Studs are at leastdoubled at openings, thejack stud being cut to receive the lintels (headers) that are placed and end-nailed through the outer studs. Wall sheathing, usuallyaplywood or otherlaminate, is usually applied to theframingpriorto erection, thus eliminating the need to scaffold. A multiple-stud post made up of at least three studs is generally used at exterior comers and intersections to secure a good tie between adjoining walls and to provide nailing support for the interiorfinish and exterior sheathing. Comers and intersections, however, must be framed with at least two studs. Nailing support for the edges ofthe ceiling is required atthejunction ofthe wall and ceiling where partitions run parallel to the ceiling joists. Wall framing in house construction includes the vertical and horizontal members ofexteriorwalls and interior partitions. Studs, wallplates and lintels serve as a nailing base for all covering material and supportthe upper floors, ceiling and roof. A two-story wooden-frame house under construction — the location of the upper floor platform is readily discerned by the widejoists between the floors, and the upper structure rests on this platform.
UNIT7 . STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 165 Exterior wall studs are the vertical members to which the wall sheathing and cladding are attached. They are supported on abottom plate orfoundation sill and in turn support the top plate. Interior partitions supporting floor, ceiling or roof loads are called loadbeanng walls; others are called non-loadbeanng or simply partitions. Intenor loadbearing walls areframed in the same way as extenor walls. Lintels (headers) are the horizontal members placed over window, door and other openings to carry loads to the adjoining studs. Lintels are usually constructed of two pieces of lumber separated with spacers to the width ofthe studs and nailed together to form a single unit. The preferable spacer material is rigid insulation. The complete wall sections are then raised and put in place, temporarybracesadded and thebottom plates nailed through the subfloorto the floorframing members. Once the assembled sections are plumbed, they are nailed together at the corners and intersections. A stnp ofpolyethylene is often placed between the mtenorwalls and theextenor wall, and abovethefirsttopplate of interior walls before the second top plate is applied to attain continuity of the air bam er when polyethylene is serving this function. A second top plate usuallylaps thefirstplate at the comers and partition intersections and, when nailed in place, provides an additional tie to theframed walls. SECTION 4 LISTENING AND SPEAKING 23. Listen to the Text “A Horizontal Support”. a) Answer the questions that follow. 1.Whatisabeam? 2.Whatmaterialscanbeamsbe madeof? 3.What forces are beams usuallysubjected to?
166[ Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 4.What conditions are reinforcedbeams used under? 5.What elements can beams rest on? b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 7A of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about beams. d) Tell your groupmates aboutbeams based on the information to be collected. 24. Listen to the Text “Roof”. a) Which of these statements are true and which are false? 1.The roofdesign depends on the climate ofthe place in which a building is located. 2.The roof of abuilding protects people from rain and sun. 3. Where it often rains, the roof slopes steeply. 4. It is convenient to live in a house with sloping sides. 5. Triangular frameworks are called trusses. 6.In the MiddleAgesthewoodenframe ofthe roofwashidden by a ceiling. 7.The hammer-beam roofincreased the effect of height and space. 8.The waterproof covering of apitched roofis made ofthick slabs ofbaked clay. 9. Sheets of weatherproof roofing-felt help to keep out rains. 10. When a roof covers a large space, wood trusses are used. b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 7B of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about different types of roofs.
UNIT 8 STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING ffl SECTION 1 VOCABULARY AND WORD STUDY 1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary to the text “Engineering for Buildings” and translate the given sentences. 1. safe['seif]adj—безопасный, надежный safety ['serfti] n— безопасность, надежность A safeconstruction plan follows all safetyregulations. 2. collapse [ka'laeps] n v — разрушение, выход из строя, крушение;разрушаться, ослабевать, выходить из строя A failure in tensile strength may result in the collapse of the beam. Buildings tend to collapseduring an earthquake. 3. utilize [juitilaiz] v — использовать, утилизировать In her newjob her talents willbebetter utilizedthan before. 4.goal['gaul] n— цель, задача achieve a goal[a'tfi:v] — достичь цели The firm managed toachievesafetygoalsthrough incentive pay. 5. scale ['skeil] n— масштаб, шкала; сводить к определен­ ному масштабу, определять масштаб House building is being carried out on a large scale. This thermometerhastwoscalesmarked onit.In a mapdrawnto the scale1 :50,000, one centimeter represents half a kilometre.
168I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 6.be distinct from [di'stirjkt] — отличный (от других) Those two construction plans are quite distinctfrom each other. 7. emerge[Ттэ:cfc] v— появляться emergence[Ттэ:cfcans] n— появление Some new theones emergedon Egyptianpyramid construction. The 1980ssaw theemergenceof many new building practices. 8. deal (with) [di:l] v — иметь дело (с), рассматривать вопрос In the building field we usually dealwithcomplex plastics. 9. service['sa: vis] n— служба, обслуживание; (pi.) комму­ никации, инженерное оборудование здания serviceability [,sa:visa'biliti] п — полезность, пригод­ ность, эксплуатационная надежность, работоспособ­ ность They require access to the ceiling void to install theservices. In civil engineenng, serviceabilityrefers to the conditions under which a building isstill considered useful. 10. carry out v — проводить, выполнять Alloperations can becarriedouton the top ofthe concrete slab. 11. entire[in'taia] adj— полный, совершенный, целый entirely[in'taiali] adv— полностью , всецело, совершенно The20th century sawdeep changes inthe entirerange ofbuilding. The units can be put up by unskilled labour, entirelybyhand, and without the use of mechanical equipment. 12 swayn v— качание; качаться, наклоняться Thisnew typeofconstruction isperfectlysafe;but in the search for a perfect construction, another factor has entered — sway. Like trees, tall buildings must be able toswayin the wind.
U N I T 8 . STRUCTURALENGINEERING 1 6 9 13. linear [Ч іп іэ ] adj—линейный A linear dimension is measured along a straight line. 14. retain [ri'tein] v — удерживать, поддерживать, сохра­ нять A building with a large volume in relation to its surface area retains more heat. 15. advance [ad'vams] n v — продвижение вперед, успех, прогресс; продвигаться вперед, делать успехи, р азви­ ваться There have been great advances in building construction in the last 50 years. The construction plan is advancing well. 16. behave [bi' heiv] v — работать (о конструкции, материале) behaviour [bi'heivja] n — работа, свойства, характерис­ тика, поведение (системы) Metals behave in different ways when heated. A system o f equations that describes the nonlinear behaviour o f beams is presented. 17. technique [tek'ni:k] n — методика, метод, способ, про­ цедура, технический прием, технология An interesting new technique for constructing concrete roofs was developed by the structural engineering department. 18. conform (to) [ksn 'fam] v — соответствовать (чему-л .), согласоваться (с), приспосабливаться, подчиняться (пра­ вилам) 19. precise [pri'sais] adj — точный, определенный precisely [pri'saisli] adv — точно, определено accurate ['aekjurat] adj — точный, тщательный
170I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей accurately ['aekjurstli] adv — точно This makes iteasyforthe surveyorto takeprecisemeasurements foranypoint ofthe area. The coming ofthe Iron Agebroughttools which made possible fine accurate stone cutting. Loads can be calculated accurately 20. term [ta:m] n—срок; термин intermsof —сточки зрения That was his second term as Prime Minister. This is a comprehensive dictionary ofconstruction termsand building industry terminology listed m alphabetical order. Roughcarpentry isthejob oftheframing caipenter intermso/construction. 2. Read and translate the following international words. Look up their transcriptions in the dictionary if necessary. Mind the part of speech. Criteria n, discomfort n, empirical adj, utilize v, install v, revolution n, pyramid n, formalize v, dynamic adj, creativity n, license v, accredit v, professional n adj, elastic adj, topographic adj, client n, summarize v, process n, adaptation n, atmosphere n, final adj, fund n. 3. Match the pairs of antonyms from A and В and translate them . A 1. differ 2. disappearance 3. incomplete 4. curved 5. stand 6. similar 7. inexact 8. risk В a. entire b. collapse c. precise d. conform e. safety f. emergence g. linear h. distinct
UNIT 8 . STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING I 1 7 1 4. Match the noun(s) on the left with a suitable item on the right. Use each item once only. 1.A technique 2. The advance 3. The goal 4. The building sway 5. The term 6. Serviceability 7. A structural engineer 8. The structure a. can’t be achieved. b. checks the beam strain. c. is for three years. d. was provided for. e. shows strange behaviour. f. was developed. g. was taken into account. h. was made in construction. 5. Replace the underlined words with the words below. a) carry out b) techniques c) utilize d) retain e) accurate 0 sway g) emerge h) behave i) services j) collapse 1.Agreat amount ofeffortisspent onthe correct application of formulas. 2 . Research in the field progressed the general understanding ofhow steelbeams act under singleand combined loads. 3. They regularly perform urgent repairs of construction equipment at thisplant. 4 . Thisbridgecan falldown under the weight of the train. 5 . Design professionals and builders should work in an integratedprocessin orderto specifyand make use of materials in a manner that will reduce or eliminate waste. 6. Some cracksinbeams can appearduring construction 7.During recentyears an interesting change hasbeengraduallybrought about m the various methods ofbuilding construction employed m Russia. 8. The pipes and cables which penetrate the floor/ceiling system must incorporate an approved fire stopping system or must be enclosed in fire resisting shafts. 9 What isthe legal temperature a building must keep in the winter in this area? 10. They developed some methodsfortesting structurespermitted to move to and fro.
172 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 6. Read and translate the following groups of sentences paying attention to the words in italics which can function as a noun and a verb, or a verb and an adjective, or a noun and an adjective, with the same form. They can have similar ordifferent meanings. Look up your dictionary if necessary. 1. a He isfamiliar with building construction terms. b. The contract specifies the termsofemployment. c. She thought of everything in termsof money. 2. a . I know how to convertFahrenheitto the centigradescale. b. Scalethe old paint from the ceiling. c. I am looking for a large-scale map. 3. a . He usually dealswith such problems effectively. b. Thisbook dealswiththe life ofV.G . Shukhov. c. The company dealsin building materials. 4. a . Thecompany wantsto hire asafedriver. b. Put your valuables in the safe. c. They created safeworking conditions at the plant. 5. a . Theygave me an advanceof a month’s pay. b. He did hisjob in advance. c. He could advance a new theory. 7. Study the following patterns showing the ways some verbs are formed from adjectives or nouns. Complete the charts. Som e of the missing words are from the texts of the Unit. Read and translate them. Use your dictionary to help you with the pronunciation. Pattern 26 Adjective/Noun + -en - »Verb Example,broad — широкий -» broaden — расширять
UNIT 8 . STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING 173 Adjective/Nom Verb strength --- -- -------- ------- length ----- -------- -- ----- wide ----- -- -------- -- --- weak ----- ---------- ----- quick --- -- -------- ------- Pattern 2 7 IAdjective/Noun+-ate-»Verb j Example, motive — мотив - > motivate — мотивировать Adjective/Noun Verb regular --------- ------------------------- active --------- ------------------------- stimulus ---------------------------------- ongin ---------------------------------- orchestra ---------------------------------- Pattern 28 j Adjective/Noun + -ise/-ize - » Verb | Examplespecial — специальный -> specialize- специализи­ роваться Adjective/Noun Verb formal ____________________ _ m o dem _ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ind u s t r i a l ______________________
174I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей computer summary Pattern 29 jAdjective/Noun + -ify/ -fy - »Verb[ Example: diverse — разнообразный —►diversify — разнооб­ разить Adjective/Noun Verb pure ______________________ simple ______________________ specific ______________________ intense ______________________ $ SECTION 2 GRAMMAR 8. Read and translate the following sentences with one (ones) used as indefinite pronouns meaning everyone/anyone and as substitution words. Use your dictionary ifnecessary. Example Oneshouldbe careful when crossing the street. — Следуетбыть осторожным при переходе черезулицу. 1don’thaveapen. I mustbuy one. — У меня нет ручки. Я должен купитьручку. 1.Sometimesone can findbricks ofa muchlarger sizethan a normal one. 2.One can’tleam English m a month.3.Concrete
UNIT 8. STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING 175 structural frames have the advantage of costing less than steel ones, but they must usuallybe reinforcedby steel to carry loads 4. One can’t get a driving licence until one is eighteen. 5. Most gardens, even small ones, have flowers and a lawn. 6 Currently, the main distinction which causes one to speak ofcomputer-aided architectural design (CAAD) rather than computer-aided design (CAD) lies m the dom ain knowledge (architecture-specific objects, techniques, data, and process support) embedded in the system. 7.One should know the difference between civil engineering and building engineering. 8 . People thinking ofbuying a house ask a realtor to show them several houses. When they decide on one, theydiscuss the price with the people who are selling it 9. In early times the only large buildings were communal ones such as granaries and places of worship for their gods. 10. “ Isiteasytogo campingin the country?” — “Yes, but one is not allowed to camp where one likes. One can only use camp-sites.” 9. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the meaning and uses of that (those). Example Give me thatpencil (those pencils), please — Дайте мне, пожалуйста, тот карандаш (me карандаши). The price ofgold ishigherthan thatofsilver. — Цена на золо­ то выше ценысеребра. The fax thatarrived in the morning is in your file — Факс, которыйприбылутром, находится в вашей папке. I think that he is right. — Ядумаю, чтоон прав 1.Only with the understanding ofstructuraltheories that emerged during the 19th and 20th centuries the professional structural engineer came into existence. 2 . Cavity walls have a heat-flow rate that is50percent ofthat ofa solid wall. 3.The second system isdeep structure which means that the operationsperformedby the computer have natural limitations. 4 . Structural engineering is a field of engineering dealing with the analysis and design of structures
176 I Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей that support or resist loads 5.The upperlimitof concrete strength issetby that ofthe stone used in the aggregate. 6 .The traditional method usesjoists similar to those offloor construction to span between extenor walls 7. Complex building regulations were imposedbycity authonties to ensure thatbuildings were structurally sound and stable, thattheyhad enough lightand air around them, and that they looked nght. 8 .Now that lack ofhousing isasocial problem, especially with the high nse in house pnces. 9 . The foundations ofthose buildings support considerably heavierloads than those of residential buildings. 10. The people constructed thosehousesfrom whatever matenal was available where they lived. 11. Structural engineering design utilises a relatively small number ofbasic structural elements to build up structural systemsthat can be very complex. 12. Building design professionals include those licensedbythe state — such as architects and structural, mechanical, and electrical engineers — who must formally certify that the building they design will conform to allgovernmental codes and regulations. 10. Read and memorize the prepositions oftwo or more words. Translate the given sentences. 1 according to согласно ч ет 7 2 apart from не считая кроме, іе говоря уже о 3 as to относительно, что ка сается 4aswellasтакжекак 5 because of благодаря, из-за 6 by means of посредство и lie to благодаря всіедствие 8 in addition to в допознениек 11 in spite of несмотря на A ct ordtng to the timetable the tram leaves at 8 15am Father was the onlyone who knew you thoroughly, apart from me Mr Pike inquired as to the exchange pnce This article is interesting as well as useful I couldn't get to work because of my illness Thoughts are expressed b \ means o f words Our success was due to luck In addition to giving a general introduction to computers, the course alsoprovides practical experience Iwill waitforyoumfront oftheshop He stood on the chair in order to reach the top shelf. In spite o f the threat of war, he says he remains confident that peace is possible____
UNIT8. STRUCTURALENGINEERING 177 12 instead of вместо He accepted the realities instead o f resisting them. In view o f his youth, the police have decided not to press charges He couldn’t read the speech himself, on account of a sore throat Flights were delayed owing to the stnke With regard to your recent application, I am afraid we are unable to offer you the job Thanks to the new netw ork, clerks will be able to deal with all the payments at one time 13 in view of ввидi, принимая во вн иман ие 14 on account of из-за по при­ чине, вследст вие 15 owing to из-за, б тгодаря 16 with (in) regard to что ка­ сается относительно 17 thanks to біагодаря из за вследст вие 11. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the prepositions o f two or more words. 1. This document forms an agreement between the client and the design team as to the expected building size and performance. 2. Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) refers to the use of any computational technique m the field of architectural design other than by means of architecture-specific software. 3. There was a tax o n bricks in England. From 1784 to 1850 you were taxed according to the number of bricks you used in a building. 4 In Egypt, in spite of the heavy loads that stone structures created, foundations were o f a surprisingly improvised character, made of small blocks of poor quality stone. 5. Bricks were very popular as a building material from 1700 to 1900s. This was probably due to the fact that it was much more flame retardant than wood in the ever crowding cities, and cheap to produce 6. Apart from naturally occurring matenals, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. 7. The complexity of modem structures often requires a great deal of creativity from the engineer in order to ensure the structures support and resist the loads they are subjected to. 8. The design of a building begins with its future user or owner, who has in mind a perceived need for the structure, as well as a specific site and a general idea of its projected cost. 9. In addition to general knowledge of building science, the design
178 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей team collects specific data related to the proposed building site 10. Made from clays, and easierto use than stone because oftheir size and standardization, bricks made possible the construction of the arches, vaults, and domes that were popular in Europe from theRoman era on. 12. Supply the missing prepositions oftwo or more words from exercise 10. One or more answers may be correct. 1. In the 15th centurybrick remained quite expensive the cost ofthefuel needed to fireit, and itwasused mainlywhere there was no readily available stone. 2 . The company has had a successful year, the improvement in export sales. 3. These mappings are abstractions that are introduced discussthe process ofdesign and deployment ofCAAD systems. 4 .There is a separate garden each house. 5 . Now, the financial cut-backs, the plants have been closed. 6 . The first program was installed in the 1960’s to help architects save time drawing theirblueprints. 7 . the fact that all the other members ofthe group aregoing, Ithinkyou shouldgo too. 8. He couldn’t go to work in Africa his poor health. 9. construction equipment, foreign orders saw a netdecreaseby 19per cent. 10. Architects direct the work of engineers, many other consultants m such specialized areas as lighting, acoustics, and verticaltransportation. SECTION 3 READING AND SPEAKING 13. What do you know about structural engineering? Read the statements given below and say if they are true or false. If the statements are not true, make the necessary corrections. a) Structural engineenng can only be studied on its own right. b) Structural engineers are involved in the design ofstructures.
UNIT 8. STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING 179 c) Structural engineering design uses a large number ofbasic structural elements. d) Pyramids are regarded as the most common major structures because their forms are stable and scaled. e)The theory ofstructures existed and was widely used throughout ancient and medievalhistory. f) The profession of a structural engineer took shape in the Renaissance. g) The architect and the structural engineer were different professionsbefore the industrial revolution. h) A structural engineer is considered to be fully qualified after completing a three-year course of studyat college or university. 14. Read Text 8A “Engineering for Buildings” and say if you are right or wrong. Discuss your answers with your groupmates. • TEXT 8A Engineering for Buildings Structural engineering isa field of engineering dealing with the analysis and design of structures that support or resist loads. Structural engineenng isusuallyconsidered a specialty within civil engineering, but it can also be studied in its own right. Structural engineers are most commonly involvedin the design of buildings and large nonbuilding structures but they can also be involved in the designof machinery, medical equipment, vehicles or any item where structural integrity affects function or safety of the item. Structural engineers must ensure theirdesignssatisfygiven designcriteria, predicated on safety(eg. structures must not collapse without due warning) or serviceability and performance (eg. building sway must not cause discomfortto the occupants). Structural engineering theory isbased upon physicallaws and empirical knowledge of the structural performance of different landscapes and materials. Structural engineering design utilises a relatively small number ofbasic structural elements to build up
180 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей structural systems that can be very complex. Structural engineers are responsible for making creative and efficient use of funds, structural elements and matenals to achieve thesegoals. Structural engineering hasexisted since hum ans first started to construct their own structures. It dates back to at least 2700 BC when the step pyramidforPharaoh Djoserwasbuiltby Imhotep, the first engineer m history known by name. Pyramids were the most common major structures builtbyancient civilizationsbecause the structural form of a pyramid is inherently stable and can be almost infinitely scaled (asopposed to most otherstructural forms which cannot belinearlyincreased in sizeinproportion to increased loads). Throughout ancient and medievalhistory most architecturaldesign and construction were earned outbyartisans, such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of masterbuilder. No theory of structures existed, and the understanding of how structures stood up was extremely limited and based almost entirely on empirical evidence of “whathad workedbefore” . Knowledgewasretainedby guilds and seldom supplanted by advances. Structures were repetitive, and increases m scale were incremental. No record exists of the first calculationsofthe strength ofstructural members orthebehaviourofstructural material, but the profession of a structural engineer only really took shape with the industrial revolution and the re-invention of concrete. The physical sciences underlying structural engineenng began to be understood in the Renaissance and have been developing ever since. Structural engineenng became a more defined profession with the emergence of the architecture profession as distinct from the
UNIT 8. STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING 181 engineenng profession dunng the industrial revolution in the late 19th century. Until then, the architect and the structural engineer were oftenone and the same — the masterbuilder. Onlywiththe understanding ofstructuraltheonesthat emergeddunng the 19th and 20th centunes the professional structural engineercame into existence. The role of a structural engineer today involves a significant understanding ofboth static and dynamic loading, and the structures that are available to resistthem. The complexityofmodem structures often requires agreatdeal of creativityfrom the engineerin order to ensure the structures support and resistthe loads they are subjected to. A structural engineer will typically have a four or five year undergraduate degree followed by a minimum ofthree years of professional practice before being considered fullyqualified Structural engineers are licensed or accredited by different learned societies and regulatorybodies around the world (forexample, the Institution ofStructural Engineers in the UK). 15. Find in Text 8A the paragraphs saying about the history of structural engineering and translate them into Russian. 16. Read aloud paragraphs 8 and 9 ofText 8A. 17. Explain the following references. a) theycan also be involved in the design of machinery Whatdoesthepronoun theyreferto? b) structural elements and materials to achieve thesegoals. Whatdoesthedemonstrativepronounthesereferto? c) first started to construct theirown structures. What doesthepronoun theirreferto? d) the structures that are available to resist them. Whatdoesthepronoun themreferto?
182 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей е) and resist the loads they are subjected to. Whatdoesthepronountheyreferto? 0 2700; 19 (twice); 20 What do these numbers referto? 18. Find in Text 8A some key words and expressions to speak about structural engineering. Retell the Text in English. 19. Skim Text 8B “Building Dsign” and try to understand what it is about and what information is known to you. • Text 8B Building Design The design of a building begins with its future user or owner, who hasin mind aperceived need forthe structure, as well as a specific site and a general idea ofits projected cost. The useror client brings these factsto a team ofdesign professionals composed of architects and engineers, who can develop from them a set of construction documents that define the proposed building exactly and from which it can be constructed. Building designprofessionals include those licensed bythe state, such as architects and structural, mechanical, and electncal engineers, who must formally certifythat the building they design will conform to allgovernmental codes and regulations. Architects are the primary design professionals; they orchestrate and direct the work of engineers as well as many other consultants in such specialized areas as lighting, acoustics, and vertical transportation. The design professionals draw upon a number of sources in preparing their design. The most fundamental ofthese isbuilding science, which hasbeengraduallybuiltup overthe past 300years. This includes the parts ofphysical theory that relate to building, such as the elastic theory of structures and theories of light, electricity, and fluid flow. There is also a large compendium of
UNIT 8. STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING 183 information on the specificproperties ofbuilding matenals that can be applied in mathematical models to reliably project building performance. There is also a large body of data on criteria for human comfort in such matters asthermal environment, lighting levels, and sound levels that influence a building design. In addition to general knowledge ofbuilding science, the design team collects specific data related to the proposed building site. These include topographic and boundary surveys, investigations of subsoil conditionsforfoundation and water-exclusiondesign, and climate data and otherlocal elements. Concurrentlywith the collection ofthe site data, the design team works with the client to better define the often vague notions of building function into more precise and concrete terms. These definitions are summarized in abuilding space programme, which givesa detailed written description ofeach required space in terms of floor area, equipment, and functional performance criteria. Thisdocumentformsanagreementbetweentheclient andthedesign team asto expected building size andperformance. The processbywhichbuilding science, sitedata, and thebuilding space program are used by the design team is the art ofbuilding design. Itisa complexprocess involving the selection ofstandard building systems, and their adaptation and integration to produce a building that meets the client’s needs within the limitations of government regulations and market standards. These systems have becomedividedinto a number ofclearsectorsbythebuildingtype for which they are intended. The design process involves the selection of systems for foundations, structure, atmosphere, enclosure, space division, electricaldistribution, water supply and drainage, and otherbuilding functions. These systems are made from alimited range of manufactured components butpermit a wide range ofvariationinthefinalproduct.Oncethesystemsand components havebeen selected,thedesignteam preparesa set of contract documents consisting ofa wntten text and conventionalized drawingsto describe completelythe desired building configuration in terms of the specified building systems and their expected
184[Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей performance When the contract documents havebeen completed, the final costs ofthe building can usually be accurately estimated and the construction process canbegin. 20. Identify the topic of each paragraph of Text 8B. 21. Answer the following questions. a) What does the design of a building begin with? b) Whodevelops constructiondocuments? c) What are design professionals’ responsibilities? d) What sources do design professionals use to prepare their design? e) What site inform ation is required for design engineers? f) What is abuilding space programme? g) What is the definition ofthe art ofbuilding design? h) What does the design process involve? 22. Read Text 8C “Computer-Aided Architectural Design” and answer the questions. Discuss your answers with your groupmates. a) What software programs are used in the building design? b) What isCAAD? c) Whywas CAAD developed as a distinct class ofsoftware? d) What isthe differencebetween CAD and CAAD9 e) What systems doesCAAD have? f) What makes it easy to perform arithmetical operations effectively? g) What isthe two-way mapping ofactivities? h) Does the design process cover the complete life cycle of a building? i) What is meant bya design continuum? j) How is agraphical approach usedin the designprocess?
UNIT 8. STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING 185 • TEXT 8C Computer-AIDED Architectural Design Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) software programs are the repository ofaccurate and comprehensive records ofbuildings and are used by architects and civil engineers. The first program wasinstalled in the 1960’sto help architects save timeinstead ofdrawingtheirbluepnnts. Computer-aideddesign alsoknown asCAD wasoriginallythe type ofprogram that architects used, but since CAD couldn’t offer all the tools that architects needed to complete a project, CAAD developed as adistinct class o f software. AllCAD andCAADsystems employ adatabase withgeometric and otherproperties ofobjects; they allhave somekind ofgraphic user interface to manipulate a visual representation rather than thedatabase; and they are all more orless concerned with assembling designsfrom standard and non-standardpieces. Currently,the main distinction which causes one to speak ofCAAD ratherthan CAD lies in the domain knowledge (architecture-specific objects, techniques, data, and process support) embedded in the system. A CAAD system differsfrom otherCAD systems in two respects - It has an explicit object database of building parts and construction knowledge. - It explicitly supports the creation of architectural objects. In amoregeneral sense, CAAD also refers to the use of any computational technique in the field of architectural design. For example, software which is specifically developed forthe computer animation industry (e.g . Maya and 3DStudio Max)isalso used in architectural design. CAAD hastwo typesofstructures m itsprogram. Thefirst system issurface structure which provides agraphicsmedium to represent three dimensional objects using two dimensional representations Thesecond system isdeep structure which meansthattheoperations performed by the computer have natural limitations. Computer hardware and machinelanguagesthat are supported bythese makeit easy to perform anthmetical operationsquicklyand accurately.
Здесь должны быть стр 186 и 187
188[ Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 8B of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about a structural engineer’s responsibilities and duties.
UNIT 9 SURVEYING Ш SECTION 1 VOCABULARY AND WORD STUDY 1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary to the text “Surveying Techniques” and translate the given sentences. 1. accomplish [a'komplij] v — совершать, выполнять, до­ стигать, доводитьдо конца, завершать accomplish an objective [ab'cfcektiv] —достичь цели They managed to accomplish their construction project We accomplish this objective through a broad range of project management and construction services. 2. gather['дэеЭэ]information — собирать информацию The company gathered some information on the building construction market. 3. cadastral survey[ka'dasstrsl 'sa:vei] — кадастровая съемка constructionlayout survey —разбивка стройплощадки land survey — полевая съемка, геодезическая съемка Acadastralsurveyinvolves the mapping, tracing and recording of private and public land resources. Constructionlayout surveys superimpose the information shown onplans to the construction sitesothe various trades canconstruct buildings, roads and utility
190 I Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей systems. Thecourseaims to producegraduates with skillsin land surveyandprepare them for careersin the management ofproperty. 4. elevate ['elrveit] v — поднимать, возвышать elevation [,eli'veijn] n— высотная отметка, вертикаль­ ная проекция, профиль, фасад, вид сбоку(начертеже) Youcan gain abetter understanding ofhow we are working to elevatethe surveying profession. A topographic surveylocates natural and man-madefeatures with elevations. 5. execute ['eksikju:t] n— выполнять, осуществлять execution [,eksi'kju:Jn] — производство, выполнение We execute all kinds of survey. Construction planning is a fundamental and challenging activity in the management and executionof construction projects. 6. boundary[Ъаипблп] n— граница, межа, линия раз­ дела boundary corner — землемерный знак (угол) границы propertyboundary ['propati] — граница владения establishboundaries — устанавливать (определять) гра­ ницы A railway line runs along the eastern boundary.Aboundarycomer is the point of intersection of two boundary lines. Survey maps show legalpropertyboundariesand ow nership ofphysical features. How do land surveyors establishboundaries? 7. measuringtape (tape measure) ['тезэп д 'teip] —рулет­ ка, измерительная (мерная) лента Acarpenter should use ameasuringtape. 8. instrumentn— инструмент; прибор, аппарат measuringinstrument — измерительный инструмент
UNIT 9. SURVEYING 191 Theinstrumentan electrician uses to check that a power circuit is working properly is a voltmeter. All measuringinstruments are subjectto varying degrees of errors and measurement uncertainty. 9. level n adjv — горизонт, уровень, отметка; нивелир, уровень (инструмент); горизонтальный; нивелировать, выравнивать levellinginstrument — нивелир; ватерпас Awide use ofscientificinventions has raisedbuilding to a new higher level. The building has one storey which is raised above groundlevel.A carpenter uses a spint levelto check vertical and horizontal work. The site needs to be level.You should build on thelevel, not on the slope. She levelledoffthe wet concrete with a piece of wood. 10. calibrate ['kaelibreit] v — калибровать, градуировать; проверять, выверять; (геод.) компарировать Не calibratedthe weighing machine. How willyou allow the user tocalibratethe thermometer to his desired settings? 11. plane n —плоскость, уровень, горизонт planeofreference — координатная плоскость Cementing materials are usually used for joining different planes. A plane of reference acts as a guide to the location of other planes. 12. theodolite [Ѳі'Ddalait] n— теодолит Atheodeliteis used by surveyors for measuring angles. 13. area ['еэпэ] n—участок, район, площадь, территория Theareaofa surface in the room is measured in square metres.
192 I Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей 14. improve [шГргшѵ]ѵ—улучшать, совершенствовать improvementп—улучшение, усовершенствование Construction business prospects have improved enormously. Yourwork shows considerable improvement 15. resolution[,rez3'lu:Jn] n— разрешающая способность, разрешение;разложение(на составляющие) angular resolution — угловаяразрешающая способность They used a special method for improving resolution of the theodolite. Angularresolutionis the minimum angular separation at which two equaltaigets can be separated when atthe same range. 16. measuringrod —промернаярейка There are various types of measuringrodsdesigned foridentifying the length and width ofspecific objects. 17.pegn—кол, колышек Theewerefourpegsstuck in the ground. 18. plat[plaet]—(амер.)план или съемка в горизонтальной проекции, карта City, town or villageplatsshow subdivisions into blocks with streets and alleys. 19. axis (pi. axes) ['aeksis] (['aeksi:z]) n — ось axial['aeksial]adj— осевой, продольный The long axisofthe building is oriented east-west. For axial loading the effect ofthe mean stress is shown. 20. equip [fkwip] v — оборудовать, оснащать equipment[I'kwipmant] n— оборудование, оснащение The schoolbuilding isequippedwith air-conditioning. Speeding up construction hasbeen made possible through using allkinds of building equipment.
UNIT 9. SURVEYING 193 2. Read and translate the following international words. Look up their transcriptions in the dictionary if necessary. Mind the part of speech. Distance n, trigonometry n, legal adj, cadastral adj, register v, accumulation n, reduce v, compass n, barometer n, indication n, differential n, object n, private adj, locate v, verify v, correct adj, aluminum n, orientate v, correspond v, copy n v, interpretation n, meteorology n, perpendicular adj, lense n, prism n, autom atically adv. 3. Match the words with the definitions below. a) resolution b) level c) peg d) elevation e) plane f) axis g) theodolite h) measunng rod i) measuring tape j)cadastral survey 1. a centre line to whichparts of a structure maybe referred 2. a flexible form of a ruler 3. an architect’s drawing of one side of a building 4. the meansbywhich landboundaries are established/relocated 5.thepower of aninstrument to giveaclearpicture ofthings 6. an instrument having a sequence of marks at regularintervals 7.ashortpieceofwood ormetalusedto marksomething 8. an instrument used for measunng angles 9. an instrumentforshowing whether asurfaceishonzontal 10. a flat surface 4. Match the following English word combinations with the Russian equivalents. 1. plane of reference а. разбивка стройплощадки 2. execute land survey b. землемерный знак границы 3. establish boundaries c. установить оборудование 7 Зак 312
194 IАнглийский язык для студентов строительных специальностей 4. construction layout survey 5. gather information 6 accomplish an objective 7 install equipment 8 angular resolution 9. boundary comer 10. elevate a profession d. координатная плоскость e. угловоеразрешение f. поднять профессию g. собирать информацию h. выполнять полевую съемку i. достичь цели j.устанавливать границы 5. Read and translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the meaning of the words and word combinations given below. I. a) area — участок, район; площадь b) residential (housing)area — жилой район c)bearing area — площадь опоры, несущая поверхность d) a cross-section(al) area — площадь поперечного сечения I. Resistance isprovidedbytransferring the thrust force to the soilthroughthelargerbeanng area oftheblock suchthatthe resultant pressure against the soil does not exceed the horizontal bearing strength ofthe soil. 2 . It is a nice starter home by a park, the least expensive house in an expensive area, and reallyfits all ofour requirements. 3 . When a plane cuts through an object, an area is projected onto theplane. Anyplanecanbe used to cutthroughthe surface, but when thatplaneisperpendicularto an axis ofsymmetry, it projection is called a cross-sectional area. 4 . Safe driving m residential areasisimportant. 5 .Thegardenistwelve square metres m area. 6 . The area is also fast developing as a recreational and retirement housing area with a large number of foreigners now living in the area plus housing developments that have been implemented by local entrepreneurs. II. a)instrument — инструмент; прибор b) surveyinginstrument — геодезический инструмент
UNIT 9 . SURVEYING 195 c) measuringinstrument — измерительный инструмент d) levelling instrument — нивелир, ватерпас e)instrumentation — контрольно-измерительные приборы 1. The newest requirements m instrum entation and test equipment demand even higher speeds and new levels ofprecision. 2. This company manufactures, markets, imports and exports a wide range of measunnginstruments of world-renowned brands. 3.Surveyinginstruments are used forthe accurate measurement of features, orientation and absolute positioning oflarge scale objects in engineering, construction, mapping, industry, defense and other applications. 4 .The use oflevelling instrum ents is essential to variousparts ofthe construction process, rangingfrom investigating the original site to locating the building on the site, and establishing grades and elevations ofvariousparts ofthe structure. 5 . Instruments used in surveying operations measure vertical andhorizontal angles, and distance. 6. Read and translate the following word combinations which come from the texts of the Unit. Mind the use of nouns as attributes in preposition. Look up your dictionary if necessary. Three-dimensional spaceposition, land maps and boundaries, data analysis, property boundaries, land survey data, space delineation, data accumulation, construction layout surveys, precision measurements, land ownership, a measunnginstrument level, air pressure, a sea level, a boundary surveyor, boundary comers, an instrumentlocation, reference marks, a standard map grid, a tape measure, rocket launch technology, horizontal axis error, measurementprocedure. 7*
196I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 7. Study the following patterns and complete the charts. Read and translate them into Russian. U se your dictionary if necessary. Pattern 30 Ire-+Verb->Verbj The re- prefix means a repeated action, again in a new and a better way. Example, consider — рассматривать —>reconsider — пере­ сматривать Verb Verb define ---------------------------------- distribute ---------------------------------- examine ---------------------------------- open ---------------------------------- read ---------------------------------- construct ---------------------------------- Pattern 31 un-, in-, im-, il-, ir-, dis- + Adjective/Verb -> Adjective/Verb The un-, in-, im-, il-, ir-, dis- prefixes have a negative or opposite meaning. Example, able — способный —>unable — неспособный a) un- isthe most common, e.g . unusual; b) in- is often used before words with a Latin origin, e.g . invisible;
UNIT9. SURVEYING 1 9 7 c)im- is usedbefore some wordsbeginning with morp,e.g. impolite; d) il- can be used before /, e g. illegal; e) ir- is used before a few words beginning with r, e g. irreplaceable; f) dis- is used before some adjectives and verbs, e.g . dislike. Adjective/Verb Adjective/Verb acceptable _____________________ employed _____________________ adequate _____________________ formal _____________________ perfect _____________________ probable _____________________ literate _____________________ logical _____________________ regular _____________________ responsible _____________________ agree _____________________ believe _____________________ SECTION 2 GRAMMAR 8. Read and translate the sentences in the left and right columns into Russian. Say whether the action of the object clause precedes, follows or is simultaneous with the action of the principal clause in these sentences. Mind the sequence of tenses.
198[ Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей Example Не saidthat he worked(wasworking)at the plant. — Он ска­ зал, что работает на заводе. Не saidthat he had worked at the plant. — Он сказал, что работал на заводе. Не saidthat he wouldwork at the plant. — Он сказал, что будет работать на заводе. 1Неsays heneeds aholiday 2.ShethinksthatIwent home early. 3Theyknow Peterwill see them later 4Myfriendsays hecanspeak French. 5.Hesays hehas seen thatbook on the teacher’ s table. 6.HesaysI am wasting my time. 7.Janesays shemay arrivelater. 8Hethinks shehas been sleeping 9.Marysays heshould gotothe dentist’s 10.Sarahsays shemust finish the report__________________ Hesaid thatheneeded a holiday ShethoughtthatIhadgone home early Theyknew Peterwould see them later. Myfriendsaidhecould speak French Hesaid hehad seen thatbook on the teacher’ s table HesaidIwas wasting mytime Janesaid shemightarrive later Hethought shehad been sleeping. Marysaid heshould gotothe dentist’s. Sarahsaid shemust (had to) finish the report____________ 9. Read and translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the rules of the sequence of tenses. 1.He reported that thebuilding industryhaddeveloped from the process of using natural materials forbuilding simple shelters in early times to the complex industrialprocessof modem times 2. He saidthat many ofthe materials usedthen were made m factories and were often partly put togetherbefore they even reached the building site. 3. The last halfofthe 18th century saw the unfolding
of a series of events, primarily in England, that later historians would call the first Industrial Revolution, which would have a profound influence on society as a whole as well as on building technology. 4 . 1told them that we were starting a new company. 5. The article said that large buildings as factories, warehouses, schools, and hospitalshad to bebuilt of materials that would bear heavy weights. 6 The teacher explainedto the studentsthat arches, called trusses, had been used to span the area to be left open. 7. He told us that high-rise buildings could be described as skyscrapers. 8 . The second industrial age saw the reemeigence of concrete in a new composite relationship with steel, creating a technology that would assume a major role inbuilding construction. 9. He reported thatthere were specialtechniquesusedinbuilding skyscrapers which were described in a separate lecture. 10 . The teachertold his studentsthat we mightputthebuildings around us into two groups: commercial, industrial, or institutional buildings, and smaller, residential ones. 10. Put the sentences in the past as shown. Use the rules of the sequence oftenses. Example He sayshe likesthisjob. — He saidhe likedthatjob. 1.I am sure that trusses maybe made of wood, metal, or reinforced concrete. 2.He doesn’t know that concrete isgenerally reinforced using steel rods or bars. 3. He says there were few specialist builders in earlytimes. 4 .He says she is earning a lot of money now. 5.I wantto askyouwho will win money onthe lottery.6 . He sayshe hasjust changed hisjob because he wants to earn more money.7.She wantstoknowhow much money she may need to buy this cottage. 8 . She asks me when the building industries of most Western countriestook the form in which wefind them today. 9 . She says she paid $2,000 for her computer, but it isn’t worth very much now. 10.Thearticle says that new building materials willbe used and engineerswillbe trained to use them. _______________________________________________________ UNIT 9. SURVEYING I 199
200 [Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей 11. Change the following sentences into indirect speech. a) Statements Example Bob said, “Iknow this rule.” — Bob saidthat heknewthat rule. Bob saidtous, “ / knowthis rule.” — Bob toldusthat heknew that rule. 1.He said, “Mygrandfather was a surveyor.” 2. Mary said to us, “The simplest methodfor measuringheightiswith an altimeter.” 3.They said, “Thisjob willbe done in steps.” 4.John said to his father, “I wantto goto a restaurantbut Idon’t have enough money.” 5.He said to Nick, “Ididn’t understand the differencebetween a theodolite and a levelinstrument.” b) Requests and orders Example He saidtome, “Switchthe computer on, please.” — H e asked me toswitchthe computer on. She saidtome, “Don’t waste money.” — She toldme not to wastemoney. 1.The teacher said to his students, “Give two examplesofthe basic tools used in surveying and building to transfer, measure, or set horizontal levels.” 2 .1asked myfriend, “Help me to solve this problem, please.” 3. He said, “Don’t buy these books, Tom.” 4. He said to us, “Read articles on building construction in any English or American journal or newspaper to improve your construction engineering vocabulary.” 5. The teacher said to us, “ Don’t make so many mistakesinyourEnglish test papers.” c) General (Yes/No) questions Example Alan askedme, “Doyougoto university?” — Alan askedme if (whether) I wentto university.
1. He asked, “Did you live in a detached house outside Birmingham?” 2. She asked her friend, “Is your house small?” 3. We asked him, “Have you moved into a two-bedroomed municipalhouse?”4. Shewantedto know, “Can you affordto go on holiday this year?”5. Myfriend asked me, “Willyou buy an apartment next year?” d) Special (wh-) questions Example She asked, “ What didyou discuss at the seminar on Surveying?” — She askedme what'fithaddiscussedat the seminar on Surveying. 1. The teacher asked us, “What surveying equipment isused in Russia?” 2. He asked me, “How much did you pay foryour English-Russian dictionary?” 3. He asked his friend, “When can you invite me round to see your mobilehouse?”4.Sheasked me, “What is the difference between an automatic level and a self­ levelling level?” 5. He asked me, “When will you have your field training?” __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ U N I T 9. SURVEYING | 201 12.Askfortheinformation using Couldyou tellm e?/ Doyou to know ? 1. What house would you rather live in? 2. Is your house detached?What sort isitifnot? 3.Whatfloordo youlive on?4.Is your house in a quiet residential area? 5. In what style is the architecture of the local cathedral? 6. What is special about the building of the university you go to?
202 I Аипннкиийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей SECTION 3 READING AND SPEAKING 13. Before you read Text 9A “Surveying Techniques”, discuss the following questions with your groupmates or teacher. a) What surveying instruments do you know? b) What scientific knowledge do surveyors use for surveying? c) What associated servicesdoesland surveying include? d)Whyhassurveying alwaysbeenimportantinthedevelopment ofhuman environment? e)What modern uses of surveyingdo you know? f) How can a surveyor measure a slope? g) How wasacompassimproved? h) Why are levels calibrated? i) How istheheight of a mountaindetermined? 14. Read Text 9A to find out if your answers are right or wrong. Discuss your answers in pairs. • TEXT 9A Surveying Techniques Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of determining the terrestrial orthree-dimensional spaceposition of points and the distances and anglesbetween them. These points are usuallyon the surface ofthe Earth, and are often used to establish land maps andboundariesfor ownership or governmentalpurposes. In order to accomplish their objective, surveyors use elements of geometry, engineenng, trigonometry, mathematics, physics, and law . Furthermore, a particular type of surveying known as land surveying is the detailed study or inspection by gathering information through observations, measurements in the field, questionnaires,
UNIT 9 . SURVEYING 203 or research oflegal instruments, and data analysis in the support of planning, designing, and establishing ofproperty boundaries. It involves the re-establishment of cadastral surveys and land boundariesbased ondocuments of record and historical evidence, as well as certifying surveys of subdivision plats/maps, registered land surveys,judicial surveys, and space delineation. Land surveying can include associated services, such as mapping and related data accumulation, constructionlayout surveys, precision measurements of length, angle, elevation, area, and volume, as well as horizontal and vertical control surveys, and the analysis and utilization ofland survey data. Surveyinghasbeen an essential element in the development of thehuman environment since thebeginning of recordedhistory(5000 years ago) and it is a requirement in the planning and execution of nearly every form of construction. Its most familiar modem uses are in the fields of transport, building and construction, communications, mapping, and thedefinition oflegalboundaries for land ownership. Historically,distances were measured using a varietyofmeans, such as chains withlinks ofa knownlength,forinstance a Gunter’s chain or measuring tapes made of steel. In order to measure horizontaldistances, these chains or tapes wouldbe pulled according to temperature to reduce sagging and slack.Additionally, attempts to holdthe measuringinstrumentlevel wouldbe made. In instances of measuring up a slope, the surveyor might have to “break” the measurement — that is, raise the rearpart ofthe tape upward, plumbfrom where the last measurement ended. Horizontal anglesweremeasured using a compass which would provide a magnetic bearing from which deflections could be measured. This type ofinstrument was later improved with more
204I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей carefully scribed discs providing better angular resolution, as well as through mounting telescopes with reticlesfor more precise sighting atop the disc. Additionally, levels and calibrated circles allowing measurement ofvertical angleswere added. The simplest methodfor measuring heightiswith an altimeter — basically a barometer — using air pressure as an indication of height, but surveying requiresgreaterprecision. A variety of means, such asprecise levels, havebeen developed to do this. Levels are calibrated to provide a precise plane from which differentials in height between the instrument and the point in question can be measured, typically through the use of a vertical measuring rod. With the triangulation method, one first needs to know the horizontal distance to the object. The height of an object can be determined by measuring the angle between the horizontalplane and the line throughthat point at a knowndistance and the top of the object. In orderto determine the height of a mountain, one shoulddo thisfrom the sealevel,but here the distances can be too great and the mountain may not be visible. So itisdone in steps, first determining the position of one point, then moving to that point and doing a relative measurement, and so on until the mountain topisreached. 15. Find in Text 9A the paragraph saying about land surveying and translate it into Russian. 16. Read aloud paragraphs 4 and 5 ofText 9A. 17. Find in Text 9A the definitions of the following terms and translate them into Russian: a) surveying; b) chains; c) a compass; d) an altimeter; e) a levelling instrument;
UNIT 9 . SURVEYING L lif f) calibrated circles; g) a triangulation method. 18. FindinText 9A some key words and expressions to speak about surveying techniques. Retell the Text in English. 19. Skim Text 9B “Land Surveying” and try to understand what it is about and what information is known to you. • TEXT 9B Land Surveying The aim of cadastral surveysisto re-establish and mark the comers of original land boundaries. The first stage is to research relevant records such asland titles (deeds), survey monumentation (marks on theground)and anypublic orprivate records thatprovide relevant data. The job of a boundary surveyor retracing a deed or prior surveyisto locate such m onuments and verifytheir correct position. Overtime, development, vandalism and acts of nature often wreak havocon monuments, so theboundary surveyoris often forced to consider other evidence such as fence locations, woodlines, monuments on the neighboringproperty,parole evidence and other evidence. Monuments are the marks on theground that define location Pegs are commonlyusedto markboundary comers. Smallpegsin the ground and steel rods are used as instrument locations and reference marks, commonly called survey control. Marks should bedurable andlonglasting, stable so the marksdo not move over time, safefromdisturbance and safeto work at.Theaim isto provide sufficient marks so some marks will remain for future re­ establishment of boundaries. Examples of typical man-made monuments are steel rods, pipesor bars with plastic, aluminum or brass caps containing descriptive markings and often bearing the license number ofthe surveyor responsible for the establishment
206[ Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей ofsuch.Thematerial and marking used on monumentsplacedto markboundary comers are oftensubjectto state laws/statutes. A total station or GPS (Global Positioning System) isset-up over survey marks which wereplaced aspart of aprevious survey, or newly placed marks. The datum is established by measuring between points on a previous survey and a rotation is applied to orientate the new survey to correspond with the previous survey or a standard map grid The data are analysed and comparisons are made withthe existing recordsto determine evidence which canbe used to establishboundarypositions. The distance oflinesbetween theboundary comers andtotal stationpositions are calculated and used to set out and mark the comersinthefield.Checks are made by measuring directly between peg places using a flexible tape. Subdivision ofland generally requires thatthe external boundaiy is re-established and marked using pegs, and the new internal boundaries are then marked. Aplat (survey plan) anddescription (depending on local and state requirements) are compiled, thefinal report is lodged with the appropriate government office (often requiredbylaw), and copiesareprovidedto the client. Many properties have considerable problems with regards to improper bounding, miscalculations in past surveys, titles, and others. Also manyproperties are created from multiple divisions of a larger piece over the course of years, and with every additional division the risk of miscalculation increases. The result can be abutting properties not coinciding with adjacent parcels, resulting ingaps and overlaps. Theart comes in when a surveyor must solve a puzzle using pieces that do not exactlyfittogether. In these cases the solution isbased upon the research ofthe surveyor, and following established proceduresfor resolving discrepancies. 20. Give a brief overview of the structure and contents of Text 9B.
UNIT 9. SURVEYING 207 21. Complete the sentences choosing the best variant according to Text9B. 1)Aboundary surveyor’sjob is a) to mark the comers ofthe landboundaries desiredbya customer. b) to provide some relevant data. c) to locate marks on theground. 2) Pegs are used to a) verifytheboundaries. b) locate boundaries. c) make work safe. 3) To establish boundary positions a) evidence ofthe existing records is used. b) the distance between points on a previous survey is measured. c) the globalpositioning system is set up. 4) Checks are made by a) marking the comers in the field. b) measuring the distance between pegs. c) subdividing land. 5) Many properties have problems regarding a) abutting them. b) multiple divisions of a land piece. c) improper calculations. 22. Read Text 9C “Surveying Equipment” and answer the questions. Discuss your answers with your groupmates. a) Whyisa theodolite regarded as a key surveying instrument? b) What does a theodolite consist of?
208 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей c) What are both axesof a theodolite equipped with? d) What is a horizontal axis error? e) How isthe sight axisdetermined? f)Whyare horizontal axis, collimation, and index errors taken into account in the choice ofthe measurement procedure? g) How is a theodolite adjusted? h) How is a levelling instrument operated? 1)Why are self-levelling instruments preferred on sites? j) What is a digital electronic level? • TEXT 9C Surveying Equipm ent Aslate asthe 1990sthe basic tools used inplanarsurveying were a tape measure, a theodolite and a level. Atheodolite is an instrument for measuringboth horizontal and vertical angles. It is a key tool in surveying and engineering work, particularly on inaccessible ground, but theodolites have been adapted for other specializedpurposes in fields like meteorology and rocket launch technology. A modem theodolite consists ofa movable telescope mounted within two perpendicular axes — the horizontal ortrunnion, andthe vertical axis When the telescope is pointed at a desired object, the angle of each of these axes can be measured with great precision, typically on the scale of arcseconds. Both axes of a theodolite are equipped with graduated circles that can be read out through magnifying lenses. Thevertical circle should read90° when and usedfortopographic the sight axis is horizontal, or 270° surveying. when the instrument is in its second An optical theodolite, manufactured in the Soviet Union in 1958
UNIT9. SURVEYING 209 position, that is, turned over or plunged. Half of the difference between the two positions is called the index error. The horizontal and vertical axes of a theodolite must be perpendicular. The condition where they deviate from perpendicularity and the amount bywhichthey do is referred to as a honzontal axis error. The optical axis ofthe telescope, called the sightaxisand definedby the optical center ofthe objective and the center of the crosshairs in its focal plane, must similarly be perpendicular to the horizontal axis. Any deviation from perpendicularity isthe collimation error. Ahorizontal axis error, a collimation error, and an index error are regularly determined by calibration and are removed by mechanical adjustment at the factory in case they grow large. Their existence istaken into account in the choice ofthe measurement procedure in order to eliminate their effect on the measurement results. Atheodolite is mounted on itstripod headby means of a forced centeringplate containingfourthumbscrews, or in some m odem theodolites, three, for rapid levelling Before its use, a theodolite mustbeplaced precisely and vertically overthe point to be measured — centering — and itsvertical axis aligned with local gravity — levelling. The levelinstrument isan optical instrument used in surveying and building to transfer, measure, or sethorizontal levels. Itisset up on a tripod and, depending on the type, either roughly or accurately set to a levelled condition using levelling screws. The operatorlooksthrough theeyepiece ofthe telescope while an assistant holds atape measure orgraduated staffvertical atthepoint under measurement. The instrument and staff are used to gather and/or transfer elevations (levels) during site surveys or building construction. Measurementgenerally startsfrom abenchmark withknown height determined by a previous survey, or an arbitrary point with an assumed height.
210 Английский язы кдлл студентов строительных специальностей An automatic level, self-levelling level or builder’s auto level, includes an internal compensator mechanism (a swinging prism) that, when set close to level, automatically removesany remaining variation from level. This reduces the need to set the instrument truly level, as with a dumpy or tilting level. Self-levelling instruments are the preferred instrument on building sites, construction and surveying due to ease of use and rapid setup time. Adigital electronic levelisalso set level on a tripod and reads a bar-coded staff using electronic laser methods. The height ofthe staff where the levelbeam crosses the staffis shown on a digital display.This type oflevel removes interpolation ofgraduation by a person, thus removing a source of error and increasing accuracy. SECTION 4 LISTENING AND SPEAKING 23. Listen to theText “Surveying as a Career”. a) Answer the questions that follow. 1.What expertsdoes civil engineeringdepend on? 2.What areas and structures are surveyorsinvolvedin? 3.What does a surveyor’s work include? 4.What scientific knowledge must a surveyorhave? 5.Should a surveyorbe good at legal aspects inhis work? 6. Should a surveyorbe able to operate surveyinginstruments? 7. Why issurveying a distinct profession apart from engineering inthe USA? 8.What is required to get a qualification of a surveyor? b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 9A of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell theText abouta surveyor’s responsibilities and duties.
UNIT 9. SURVEYING 211 d) Tellyourgroupmates about one ofyourrelatives orfriends working as a surveyor. 24. Listen to the Text “M odern Theodolites” . a) Complete the sentences according to the Text. In today’s theodolites, the__________ ofthe horizontal and vertical ___________ is usually done____________ . The readout isdone by a rotary___________ , which can be absolute, e.g . using Gray codes, or incremental, using___________light and dark radial____________ . In the latter case the circles___________rapidly, reducing angle ___________ to electronic____________oftimedifferences. Additionally,latelycomputer-controlled___________sensors have been added to thefocalplane ofthe telescope___________both auto- tatgeting and the__________measurement of residual target offset. All this is ___________in embedded software. Also, many modem theodolites, costing up to ___________apiece, are __________________ with integrated electro-optical distance measuring___________ , generally infrared based, allowing the ___________ in one go of complete___________ vectors which can then be ___________to a pre-existing____________system in the area by ___________ of a sufficient number of control___________ . This ___________ is called a resection solution or free station position ___________ and is widely used in ___________ surveying. The instruments, “ intelligent” theodolites called___________tacheom eters or “total stations”, ___________ the necessary operations,___________ data into internal registering units, or into external data___________ devices. Typically, ruggedized___________are used asdata collectors for th is ___________ . b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 9B of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about theodolites.
UNIT 10 FOUNDATIONS OF BUILDINGS SECTION 1 VOCABULARY AND WORD STUDY 1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary to the text “Foundations” and translate the given sentences. 1. transfer ['trassnfa:] [trasns'fa:] n v — перенос, передача; переносить, передавать, перемещать transfer aload — передавать нагрузку They used the device for the transfer of loads from floors to columns. Heat can betransferredthrough copperbut not through wood 2 deepfoundation — фундамент глубокого заложения floatingfoundation ['fbutirj] — плавающий фундамент friction foundation [frik/n] — висячий свайный фунда­ мент pilefoundation ['pail] — свайный фундамент shallow foundation ['Jaelau] —фундамент мелкого зало­ жения slab-on -gradefoundation — сплошной фундамент There may be a lot of conditions which may require deep foundations for ensuring stability and durability of a structure. When the soil is so soft that even friction piles will not support the building load, the final option is the use of afloatingfoundation. A pilefoundation provides a common solution to all difficult
UNIT 1 0 . FOUNDATIONS OF BUILDINGS 213 foundation site problem s. A shallowfoundation transfers building loads to the earth very near the surface. A literature review was undertaken to identifysome problems with respectto the construction o f slab-on -gradefoundations. 3. footingn—фундамент, основание; опора spreadfooting —фундамент на естественном основании Asquarefootingisthe simplest and mosteconomicalto beprovided under pillars or columns. In case of spreadfootings, the base of the member transmitting load to the soil is made wider so as to distribute the load over wider area. 4. embed [im'bed] v — погружать, заглублять, вмонтиро­ вать Thebeam wasembeddedinafoundation. 5. layer ['Іеіэ] n — слой, пласт, ряд layer ofsoil — грунтовый слой In makingbeams, care shouldbe taken to avoidplacing concrete in layers. The thin layerofsoilthat covers most ofthe earth’s land surface is vital to human survival. 6.pilenv—свая, столб drive a pile — забивать сваю driven pile — забитая свая bearingpile — несущая свая, свая-стойка, свая-колонна helicalpile['helikl] — спиральная свая frictionpile — висячая свая prefabricatedpile — готовая свая (заводского изготовления) steelH-pile — стальная свая из широкополочного дву­ тавра Piles are driven into the ground by different methods. Driven piles maintain their shape during installation. Bearingpiles act as
214I Английский язы к для студентов строительныхспециальностей pillars, supporting the superstructure and transmitting the loaddown to the level at which it can be safely borne by the ground. The helicalpilesare placed to the depth and soil strata to develop the required loads. Frictionpiles are dnven in the type of soil whose strength does not increase with depth. Theprefabricatedpile is useful for any kind of works and presents an increased strength against tensile and compressive stresses. A steelH-pileis used in a varietyofconstruction projects includingheavyhighway, public and industrial works, etc. 7.concretepad —бетонная подушка Pouring aconcretepadisnot much differentthan pouring any typeofconcrete slab. 8. caisson['keisan] — свая -колонна, кессонная свая The shape and size of a caisson depends upon the nature of structure. 9. pier ['ріэ] n — бык, опора, стойка, столб Make sure that thepierislevel vertically, using a verticallevel. 10. stabilize ['steibalaiz] v — укреплять, обеспечивать ус­ тойчивость, стабилизировать Itisnecessarytostabilizetheground under the foundation. 11. bearing(load)capacity [ka'passati] — несущая способность Thebearingcapacityof an I-beam canbe limitedbythree different capacities. 12. settle t'setl] v — садиться, осаждаться, давать осадок settlement ['setlmant] n— осадка, оседание differentialsettlement [,difo'renfl] — неравномерная осадка
UNIT 1 0 . FOUNDATIONS OF BUILDINGS 215 The six-storeybuilding ofthe Insurance Company settledseveral inches at its northeasterly comer. Most houses experience some degree of settlement within the first few years after construction. Differential settlement in a high rise building is dangerous. 13. stiffn — жесткий(оконструкции), крепкий, негибкий stiffness п —жесткость, устойчивость For this puipose deep and ^/^foundations are usuallyrequired. Thestiffnessofthe framing system prevented the collapse ofthe old building. 14. heave [hi:v] n — вздувание, вспучивание грунта; пу­ чение frostheave — пучение (грунта) при замерзании Themodelforpredicting theheave ofthe soil wasbased on the variation of pressures with depth. Frost heave is a fundamental process dominating over soil surfaces in cold regions. 15. scour ['skaua] v — размыв, подмыв; размывать, под­ мывать foundationscour — размывфундамента (основания) Erosion and scourreducethe embedment ofthefoundationinto the soil. The bridge failure was the direct result of thefoundation scourdue to flooding. 16. swell v — набухать, разбухать, вспучиваться, вздуваться swelling п — вспучивание, выпуклость, разбухание If the soil becomes saturated and swells, upheaval of the foundation can occur. Foundations constructed on these clays are subjected to large uplifting forces caused by theswelling.
216 Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей 17. shrinkLfrigk] v— давать усадку,усыхать, сжиматься shrinkage ['jiirkictj]п—усадка, усушка, сжимание Unless kept continually wet, modern concretes shrink after hardening. Soilshrinkageisthe process ofsoil material contracting to a lesser volume, with the loss ofwater on drying. 18. crack [kraek]nv— трещина; трескаться, раскалываться Thisresulted in an increase in the formation of cracksin the underside ofthe beam. The window crackeddown the middle. 19. raft[ra:ft] n—сплошнойфундамент, опорная плита Further construction was started only afterthe curing oftheraft had been fully done. 20. distort [dis tD:t] v — перекашивать(ся), деформиро­ ваться) Metal distorts under stress. 2. Read and translate the following international words. Look up their transcriptions in the dictionary if necessary. Mind the partofspeech. Category n, stabilize v, adequate adj, geotechnical adj, structurally adv, stratum n, rare adj, diameter n, principle n, collapse n, recommend v, form n, geology n, machine n, residential adj, total adj, normally adv, seasonal adj, alternative n adj. 3. Match the pairs of synonyms from A and В and translate them. A 1 ngid 2. expand В a. beanng capacity b. transfer
UNIT 10. FOUNDATIONSOFBUILDINGS 217 3. column 4. reinforced concrete layer 5. subsidence 6. transmit d. stiff e. pile f. heave g. swell h. raft c. shrinkage 7. base 8. ground 9. load capacity 10. a supporting structure i. foundation j. settlement 11. compression 12. bulging out k. soil l. pier 4. Match the verb on the left with a suitable item on the right. Use each item once only. 5. Make the following sentences complete by translating the words and phrases in brackets. 1. Field tests provide the most reliable relationship between the axial load applied to а (фундамент глубокого заложения) and the resulting axial movement. 2 .Indicationsof(неравномерная осадка) are verticaldistortion orcracking ofmasonry walls, warped interior and exterior openings, sloped floors, and sticking doors and windows. 3. Minor(трещины) are structurallyharmful only iflong-term moisture leakage through the (трещ ины) adversely 1. scour 2. place 3. embed 4. pour 5. form d. theground e. a beam f. settlement g. concrete in layers h. cracks i. a foundation j. a load a. a pile b. a concrete pad c. under stress 6. transfer 7. stabilize 8. experience 9. drive 10. distort
218[Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей affects building elements. 4 . Ifthe foundation embedment into the ground is not sufficient to account for erosion and (размыв) that may occur overthe life ofthe building, the building isvulnerable to collapse under design flood and wind conditions. 5 . A deep foundation is used to transfer a load from a structure through an upper weak(грунтовый слой)to astronger anddeeper(грунто­ вый слой). 6 . Tallbuildings often rest on many small (кессон­ ные сваи). 7 . А (фундамент на естественном основании) supports the weight (load) from the exterior orfoundation walls. 8. In construction siteswhere settlement is not a problem, (фун­ даменты мелкого заложения) provide the most economical foundation systems. 9 .The ultimate objective ofany (забитая свая) is to carry some kind ofload coming from a variety of sources. 10. The two most important design requirements for building structures are the strength and (жесткость). 6. Read and translate thefollowinggroups of sentences paying attention to the words in italics which can function as a noun and a verb with the same form. They can have similar ordifferent meanings. Look up your dictionary if necessary. 1. a . The university hasbeen famous since itsfoundation. b. The workers are laying thefoundation of a new building. c. Thisfoundationprovides money for medical research. 2. a . They usuallypilethe boxes on the table. b.Therewasaneatpileofbooksin the comerofthe room. c. Thepilewas driven into the ground. 3. a . The sweater will shrink when washed. b.Abadharvest causedthefarmer’s income to shrink. c. These processes cause the concrete to shrinkslightly. 4. a . The two sides have at last reached a settlement. b.Settlementisthe common cause offoundation problems. c. There are some empty lands awaiting settlement. 5. a . This type ofpanels does not transfervertical loads. b. She asked for a transferto the Moscow office. c. The load transfertakesplacefrom the slabs to the beams.
UNIT 10. FOUNDATIONS OF BUILDINGS 219 7. Defineparts ofspeech. Translate the words ofthe same root. 1. found —founder — foundation — foundational; 2. build — rebuild —buildable — builder — building; 3. differ — difference — different — indifferent — differently — differentness — differentiable — differentiability — differential — differentially — differentiate — differentiation; 4. structure — structural — structurally — structuralize — structuralism; 5. support — supportable — supportability — supportably — supporter — supportive — supportively— supportiveness; 6. reinforce — reinforceable — reinforcement — reinforcer; 7. wood — wooden —woodenly—woodenness —woody; 8. place — replace — displace — peaceable — placer — placement; 9. excavate — excavation — excavator; 10. operate — operation — operational — operationally — operative — inoperative — operator. 8. Read and translate the following types of conditional sentences. a) Real conditionals Example Ifhe hastime, he willdothis work. — Если у него будет время, он сделаетэту работу. 1.Ifasteelgilderprovidedin a structure isfound to be weak and flexible, it will be strengthened by suitable means. 2 . Ifthe foundation of a building yields and raptures the structure, then littlewillbe done to improve the situation. 3 . Iftheboring machine SECTION 2 GRAMMAR
220I Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей isnot equipped with a rockauger, then socketing ofthe hard rock layer willbedone withthe helpofaheavy chisel whichisdropped from a height of about 1.5 metres by suspending itfrom a tripod stand attached to a winch crane. 4 . Ifthesebuildings do not have basements in cold climates, insulated concrete or masonry frost walls willbe placed under all exterior nonbearing walls to keep frost from under the floor slabs. 5. Ifa column acting as a load beanng memberin abuildingisfound to beinadequate, it willbe made safe by providing reinforcements or by introducing intermediate columns. b) Unreal conditionals referring to the present and future Example Ifhe hadtime, he woulddothis work. — Если быу него было время, он бысделалэту работу. 1.Ifthebeams were spaced moredistance apart, there wouldbe a danger ofthe concrete filling not acting monolithicallywith the beam, resulting in the failure ofthe foundation. 2 . Ifthe foundation layout werepartlybuiltup ofbeam and column construction, straight barswouldbeprovidedbothattop andbottom ofthebeams. 3.If they used the rightwater-cement ratio, they wouldproduce concrete of high strength and durability. 4 . Ifthe nature of soil and the loading conditions were uniform overthe entire site ofthe building, the distribution ofpressure couldbe safelyassumed to be uniform and thedanger ofunequal settlement would be minimized. 5 .Ifa designcalledforthe use ofa crane, itwould be stronglydesirable thattheloads shouldbe ofthe same weight. c) Unreal conditionals referring to the past Example Ifhe hadhadtime yesterday, he wouldhave donethis work. — Если быу него вчера быловремя, он бысделалэту работу. 1.Ifthefoundation had notbeen takendeep insidetheground, rain water would not have scoured the soil above the foundation.
UNIT10.FOUNDATIONSOFBUILDINGS 221 2. Ifthe foundation trenches hadbeen dug to depth greater than shown on the drawing or as requiredbythe competent authority, no earth filling wouldhavebeen allowed inbringing thefoundation bed to the proper level. 3. Ifthe management of the plant had applied effective methods last year, the production level would have certainly increased. 4 . Ifyou had had more time at yourdisposal last week, they would have certainly asked you to take part in that work. 5. If sufficient data had been collected, a more definite solution could havebeen obtained. 9. Read and translate the following conditional sentences paying attention to inversion. Example Hadhe time, he woulddothis work. — Если быу него было время, он бысделалэту работу. 1.Had they helped us, the researchprogram would havebeen realized.2.WereIinthecity,Iwouldattendhislecture. 3.Had hepointed out allthedrawbacks, we would havefound the waysto solve the problem. 4 . Had hejoined our expedition, he could have learnt many interesting things. 5. Should the guests come earlier, no one will be here to greetthem. 10. M atch the beginnings and endings. l.Iflgetapayrise, a) if I found a wallet. 2 .1 would give it back b) I’ll take you out for dinner. 3. If I were a manager, c) he wouldn’ t have passed his exams. 4. If it weren’t so cold, d) would you want to? 5 If you don’t pay the bill, e) I will do it tomorrow. 6. If I don’ t have time to finish today, f) I could take a photo. 7. If he hadn’t worked so hard, g) I could have contacted you
222I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 8. If I had had my cell phone yesterday h) I would go for a walk. 9 If you could live to be 100 i) you will get a warning letter. 10. If I had a camera, I would give everybody ten weeks’ holiday. 11. Write conditional sentences to match these situations. Example That book is too expensive. I’m not going to buy it. — Ifthe book weren7so expensive, I wouldbuyit. She didn’t pass the exam. She didn’tgo to university. — Ifshe hadpassedthe exam, she wouldhavegoneto university. 1. It’s raining. We can’t have lunch in the garden. 2 . You went for ajob interview. You were late. You didn’t get thejob. 3.I’m in ahurry.I won’tstaytodinner. 4.Herfathergaveher some money.She wasable to buy ahouse. 5.Ihave to work tomorrow evening, so I can’t meet you 6. She is not in your position. She isn’t able to adviseyou. 7 . Paul went on holiday to Paris. He met Mary, his wife. 8.Sandra walked to walk in the rain. Shegot wet.9 .Wedon’tvisityouvery oftenbecauseyoulive so far away. 10. He’s not a millionaire. He won’t buy you a palace. 12. Put in the correct verb form. Make each sentence refer to: a) the present or the future, and b) the past. a) 1.When you___________(go) to Paris, willyou see Nicole? 2. Ifyou ________ (live) in Paris, yo u ____________(become) bored ofallthebeautiful wine andfood?3.You alwaysdrive too fast and the police___________(arrest) you if they ____________(see) you. 4.The exam was verydifficult, so it’s unlikely now, but ifRichard ___________ (pass), h e___________ (go) to university. 5 . IfI___________
UNIT10. FOUNDATIONSOFBUILDINGS 223 (be) better qualified, I ___________(apply) for the job. 6 . If you (have) longer legs, y o u ___________ (be able to) run faster. b) 1. Ifmy computer_________(not crush) yesterday, I ___________ (finish) my work. 2 . W e____________(get)better tickets for the concert ifw e___________(book) earlier. 3 . Y ou ____________ (win) ifyou________(run) abit faster. 4. Ifyou____________(learn) Italian at school, she____________ (enjoy) her last holiday to Italy more. 5. Ifthey___________(not cut) off the electricity yesterday, I___________(finish) my work. 6 . Ifyou remember the map, we ___________ (not get lost). SECTION 3 READING AND SPEAKING 13. Before you read Text 10A "Foundations”, discuss tbe following questions with yonr groupmates or teacher. a) Whatisafoundation? b) Whattypesoffoundationsdoyouknow? c) What isashallowfoundation? d) Whattypesofshallowfoundationsdoyouknow? e) What is a deep foundation usedfor? f) Whattypesofdeepfoundationsdo youknow? g) Who designsfoundations? h) What aspects shouldbe takeninto accountwhendesigning a foundation?
224I Английский яэыкдля студентов строительных специальностей 14. Read Text 10А and say ifyou are right or wrong. • TEXT 10A Foundations A foundation is a structure that transfers loads to the earth. Foundations are generally broken into two categories: shallow foundations and deep foundations. A shallow foundation is usually embedded a meter or so into soil.One common typeisthe spreadfooting which consists ofpads of concrete or other materials which extend below the frost line and transferthe weightfrom walls and columnsto the soilorbedrock. Anothercommon typeisthe slab-on -gradefoundation where the weightofthebuilding istransferred to the soilthrough aconcrete slab placed at the surface. A deep foundation is used to transfer a load from a structure through an upper weaklayer of soilto a strongerdeeperlayer of soil. There are different types of deep foundations including helical piles, impact driven piles, caissons, piers, and earth stabilized columns The naming conventionsfordifferenttypes offoundations vary among different engineers. Historically, piles were wood, later steel, reinforced concrete, and pre-tensioned concrete. Foundations are designed to have an adequate load capacity with limited settlement by a geotechnical engineer, and the foundation itself is designed structurally by a structural engineer. The primary design concerns are settlement and bearing Shallowfoundations of a capacity. When considering house versus the deep settlement, total settlement and foundations of a skyscraper. differential settlement are
UNIT10.FOUNDATIONSDFBUILDINGS 225 normallyconsidered. Differential settlement iswhen one part of a foundation settles more than anotherpart. Thiscan cause problems to the structure the foundation is supporting. Itis necessarythat a foundation is not loaded beyond its bearing capacity or the foundation will fail. Other design considerations include scour and frost heave. Scouris whenflowing water removes supporting soilfrom around a foundation (like a piersupporting a bridge over a river). Frost heaveoccurswhen waterin thegroundfreezesto form icelenses. Changesin soil moisture can cause expansive clay to swell and shrink. This swelling can vary across the footing due to seasonal changes orthe effects ofvegetation removing moisture. The variation inswellcan cause the soilto distort, cracking the structure overit. This is aparticularproblem forhousefootings in semi-arid climates such as South Australia, Southwestern US, Turkey, Israel, Iran and SouthAfrica where wetwinters arefollowedbyhotdry summers. Raft slabs with inherent stiffness havebeen developed in Australia with capabilities to resistthis movement. When structures are built m areas ofpermafrost, special consideration mustbe given to the thermal effect the structure will have on the permafrost. Generally, the structure isdesigned in a waythat tries to preventthe permafrost from melting. 15. Find in Text 10A the paragraph saying about the influence of soil on foundations and translate it into Russian. 16. Read aloud paragraphs 5—6 . 17. Explain the following references. a) Thiscan cause problems to the structure the foundation is supporting. Whatdoesthepronounthisreferto? 8 Зак 312
226[Английский языкдлястудентов строительных специальностей b) isnot loaded beyond itsbearing capacity Whatdoesthepronoun itsreferto? c) Otherdesign considerations include What does the adjective otherrefer to? d) This swelling can vary across the footing due to seasonal changes What does the demonstrative adjective thisrefer to? e) cracking the structure over it. Whatdoesthepronounitreferto? f) Raft slabs with inherent stiffness have been developed in Australia with capabilities to resist thismovement. What does the demonstrative adjective thisreferto? 18. Underline ormark the main ideas of Text 10A and retell it in English. 19. Skim T ext 10B “Foundations of Residential and Industrial Buildings” and try to understand what it is about and what information is already known to you. • TEXT 10B Foundations of residential and industrial buildings Thefoundationsin residential and industrialbuildings support considerably heavy loads. Floorloadings range from 450 to 1,500 kilogramsper square metre, and the full range offoundation types isused forthem Spread footings are used, as are pile foundations, which are of two types, bearing and friction. A bearing pile is a device to transmit the load of the building throughalayer of soiltoo weakto take the load to a strongerlayer
of soil somedistance underground; thepileacts as a column to carrytheloaddownto thebearing stratum. Solidbearingpileswere originally made of timber, which is rare today; more commonly they are made ofprecast concrete, and sometimessteelH-pilesare used.Thepilelengthmaybeamaximum ofabout60metresbutis usually much less. The pilesareput in placebydriving them into theground with laigemechanicalhammers. Hollow steelpipesare alsodriven, and theintenors are excavated andfilled with concrete to form bearing piles; sometimes the pipe is withdrawn as the concrete ispoured. Analternative to thebearingpileisthe caisson. A round holeis dug to a bearing stratum with a drilling machine and temporarily supported by a steel cylindrical shell. The hole is then filled with concrete poured around a cage of reinforcing bars; and the steel shell may or may notbeleftinplace, depending on thesurrounding soil.Thediameter ofcaissons variesfrom one to three metres. The frictionpileofwood or concrete isdriveninto softsoil wherethere is no harder stratum for beanng beneath the site. The building load is supported by the surface friction between the pile and the soil. When the soilis so soft that even friction pileswill not support thebuilding load, the final optionisthe use of afloatingfoundation, making thebuildinglikea boatthat obeysArchimedes’principle — itisbuoyed upbythe weight ofthe earth displaced in creating the foundation. Floating foundations consist offlat reinforced concrete slabs or mats or of reinforced concrete tubs with wallsturned up aroundthe edgeofthe matto create alarger volume. Ifthesebuildings do not havebasements in cold climates, insulated concrete or masonry frost walls are placed under all exterior nonbearing walls to keep frost from under the floor slabs. Reinforced concrete foundation wallsforbasements mustbe carefully braced to resist lateral earth pressures. These walls m ay be built in excavations, poured into woodenforms. Sometimesa walliscreated by driving interlocking steel sheetpiling into the ground, excavating on the basement side, and pounng a concrete wall against it.
228[ Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей Deeper foundation walls can also be built by the slurry wall method, in which a linear series of closely spaced caisson-like holes are successively drilled, filled with concrete, and allowed to harden, the spacesbetween are excavated by special clamshellbuckets and also filled with concrete. D uring the excavation and drilling operations the holes arefilled with a high-density liquid slurry which braces the excavation against collapse but stillpermits extraction of excavated material. Finally, thebasement isdug adjoining the wall, and the wallisbraced against earth pressure. 20. Give a brief overview of the structure and contents of Text10B. 21. Relate each heading to the corresponding paragraph of Text 10B. a) Caissons. b) The slurry wall method. c) Bearing piles. d) Reinforced concrete foundation walls. e) Some specific features offoundations. f) Floating foundations. 22. Read Text 10C “Deep Foundations” and answer the questions. Discuss your answers with your groupmates. a) What is the difference between a deep foundation and a shallow foundation? b) Why is a deep foundation preferred over a shallow foundation? c) What are the other names of adeep foundation? d) What are driven foundations characterized by? e) Whatisthestructure ofpilefoundation systems? f) How areboring techniques employed fordrilled piles? g) What do dryboring methods consist in? h) What is specific of wetboring?
UNIT 10. FOUNDATIONSOFBUILDINGS 229 • TEXT IOC Deep Foundations A deep foundation is a type offoundation distinguished from shallowfoundationsbythedepth they are embeddedinto theground. There are many reasons ageotechnical engineerwould recommend a deep foundation over a shallow foundation, but some ofthe common reasons are verylargedesignloads, a poor soil at shallow depth, or site constraints (like property lines). There are different terms used to describe different typesofdeep foundationsincluding piles, drilled shafts, caissons and piers. The naming conventions may vary between engineering disciplines and firms. Deep foundations canbe made out oftimber, steel, reinforced concrete andpre-tensioned concrete. Deepfoundationscanbeinstalledby eitherdriving them into theground ordrilling a shaftand fillingit with concrete, mass or reinforced. Prefabricated pilesare driven into the ground using a piledriver. Driven piles are either wood, reinforced concrete, or steel. Woodenpilesaremadefrom trunks oftalltrees. Concrete pilesare available in square, octagonal, and round cross-sections. They are reinforced with rebar and are often prestressed. Steelpiles are either pipe piles or some sort ofbeam section (like an H-pile). Historically, woodpileswerespliced togetherwhen thedesign length was too largefor a singlepile; today splicingiscommon withsteel piles, though concrete piles can be spliced with difficulty. Driving piles, as opposed to drilling shafts, is advantageous because the soil displaced by driving the piles compresses the surrounding soil, causing greater friction against the sides ofthe piles, thus increasing theirload-bearing capacity. Foundations relying on drivenpilesoften havegroups ofpiles connected by a pile cap (a large concrete block into which the heads ofthe pilesareembedded)to distribute loads which are larger than one pile can bear. Pile caps and isolated piles are typically
230I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей connected withgradebeamsto tie thefoundation elementstogether; lighterstructural elements bear on thegradebeams while heavier elementsbeardirectlyon thepilecap. Rotary boring techniques offer laiger diameter piles than any otherpiling m ethod and permitpile construction through particularly denseorhard strata Construction methodsdepend on the geology ofthe site, inparticular, whetherbonngisto be undertaken indry ground conditions or through water-logged but stable strata, i.e . wetbonng.Boringisdone untilthehard rock or softrocklayeris reached in the case ofendbeanngpiles. Iftheboring machineis not equipped with a rockauger, then socketing ofthe hard rock layerisdone with the help of a heavy chisel which is dropped from a height of about 1.5 metres by suspending itfrom a tripod stand attached to a winch crane. The socketingiscarried out untilthe desireddepth within the rocklayer hasbeen attained. The depth within the rock layeris considered to beequalto thediameter ofthepileinhard rocklayers andistaken to be equalto 2.5 timesthe diameter ofthepilein soft rock layers. Dryboring methods employ the use of a temporary casing to sealthepilebore through water-bearing or unstable strata overlying suitable stable matenal. Upon reaching the design depth, a reinforcing cageisintroduced, concrete ispoured in thebore and broughtup to the requiredlevel.Thecasing canbe withdrawn or left in situ. Wetboring also employs a temporary casing through unstable ground and is used when the pile bore cannot be sealed against wateringress. Bonngisthen undertaken using adiggingbucket to drill through the underlying soils to design depth. The reinforcing cage islowered into the bore and concrete isplaced by a tremie pipe.
UNIT 10. FOUNDATIONS OF BUILDINGS 231 SECTION 4 LISTENING AND SPEAKING 23. listen to the Text “Foundations ofLow-Rise Buildings’*. a) Answer the questions that follow. 1.What are the criteria for foundation stability? 2.Whyisitimportantthatthefoundationbottom bebelowthe maximum winterfrost level? 3.What isthe maximum frostdepth? 4.What are foundationsoflow-risebuildings characterizedby? 5.What materials canfoundationwallsbebuiltof? 6.What arethedifferencesbetweenbricks and concrete blocks? b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 10A of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) RetelldieText about some specific features ofthe foundations of low-rise buildings. d) Tell your groupmates about foundations based on the information to be collected. 24. listen to the Text “Pipe Piles”. a) As you listen, fill in the chart. The dnving of pipe piles The construction of pipe piles The protection of pipe piles
2 3 2 Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей The calculation o f the structural capacity o f pipe piles The areas in which pipe piles are us ed b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 10B o f the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about a steel driven pile foundation.
UNIT 11 BUILDING THE WALLS SECTION 1 VOCABULARY AND WORD STUDY 1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary to the text “ Bricklaying and Concrete Blocks” and translate the given 1. lay(laid)bricks ['lei] — класть кирпич bricklaying['bnkjeii)]n— кладка кирпича bricklayer['Ьгік,1еіэ] n—каменщик по кладке кирпича brickwork ['brrkw3:k] п — кирпичная кладка (соору­ жение) gaugedbrickwork[geidjd] — кладка с узкими швами Thebricks should belaidon a full bed of mortar. When you come to actual bricklaying,you will note that yourbricks have an indent on one face. During weeks 13, 14 and 15the steel erectors work simultaneously with the bricklayerswho build thebrickwork. That gives the desired illusion of tight joints in quality gauged brickwork. 2. joint ['cfeoint] — шов кирпичной кладки, соединение, стык mortarjoint — шов с заполнением строительным раст­ вором point mortarjoints — расшивать швы (кладки)
234 Английскийя длястудентовстроительныхспециальностей Thefewerthejointstobe madebetween members, thespeedier the erection willbe. Mortarjointshave an effect on the appearance ofbrickwork.The timetopointmortarjointsiswhen the mortaris hard. 3. course [ko:s] n—ряд (кирпичной кладки) lay a course — класть ряд (кирпичной кладки) All thecoursesshould be(aidtruly horizontal. 4. plumbІрілт] nadjv— отвес, грузило; вертикальный Bricklayer uses aplumb to check verticality. Is this wallplumb? 5. cavitywall ['kaevati] — пустотелая (полая) стена, стена с воздушной прослойкой solid wall — сплошная стена Cavitywallsare made oftwo layers with a smallgap or cavity between them. Solidwallshave no such a gap and this allows more heatto passthrough them than through cavitywalls. 6. fitv— пригонять, приспосабливать, собирать, монти­ ровать fittogether— пригонятьчасти Lay a row ofdrybricksfirstto seethattheyfitin thedesignated space. Brickworkisusually made ofbrickswhose measurements are 1•2 •4, so that they canfittogetherin manypositions. 7. rub v — натирать, притирать, затирать rubbersn—специальный легкорежущийся кирпич; сла­ бообожженный кирпич из кремнеземистой глины Analternate method istosimply rubthe mortaroverthe surface. Rubbersare relatively softbricks that historically havebeen used to create fine cut and rubbed, and carvedbrickwork.
UNIT 11 . BUILDING THE WALLS 235 8. лепеег [ѵэ'тэ] n v — кирпичная облицовка стены; шпон, однослойнаяфанера; облицовывать; обшивать фанерой veneeredbrickmasonry—облицованная кирпичная кладка Because the masonry veneeris non-structural, it must be tied backto thebuilding structureto prevent movement under wind and earthquake loads. Bnck veneersare produced as a thinnerbrick productwhichis usuallylessthenhalfthe size of normalbrick sizes. 9. absorb [ab'so:b] v — поглощать, абсорбировать, впиты­ вать absorption [ab'so:pJn] n— поглощение, абсорбция Thepower ofabricktoabsorbwateris measuredbytheinitial ra te o f absorption. 10. pattern ['paetnj n — образец, модель, узор, рисунок, форма brick(work)pattern — система кирпичной кладки Most towns today have a characteristic functional pattern. Abrickworkpattern simply requires you to lay out straight courses. 11. stucco ['sUkau] n— наружная штукатурка Stuccoisapplied wet and hardensto a very dense solid. 12. impart [im'pcut] v — передавать, давать, придавать impart strength— придавать прочность Mortar not only acts as a cementing material but also impart strengthto the work by holding the individual bricks together. 13. appear[э'ріэ] v — показываться; появляться appearance[s'piarans] n—внешний вид;появление The town of the future is already appearing among us today. Russian cities are growing and their appearance is changing.
236I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей Theappearanceof new materials resulted ingreatbuildings erected dunng the following centuries. 14. void n — пустота, пора, полость Voidscause a serious loss in strength of concrete. 15. bondnv— перевязка кирпичной кладки, связь; соеди­ нять, связывать Flemish (Dutch)bond —фламандская перевязка headerbond['heda] — тычковая перевязка Englishbond — английская (цепная) перевязка rat-trap bond — кладка в один кирпич (кирпичи на ребро) stretcherbond['stretfa] — ложковая перевязка Thebricks canbe arranged in a variety ofpatterns giving nse to different types ofbonds. The bricks were strongly bondedtogether. Flemishbondrendersthe appearance oftheface work more attractive and pleasing. Headerbondpermits better alignment and as suchit isused for walls curved on plan. In Englishbondone course consists ofbncks withtheirendstowardtheface ofthewall, andthe next course consists ofbncks withtheirlengthsparallel to theface ofthe wall. In therat-trapbondbncks are placed on edge in 1:6 cement mortar. 16. metaltie [tai] — металлический анкер Structuralbonding ofmasonry walls maybeaccomplishedbythe use ofmetaltiesembeddedin connectingjoints. 17. durable[djuarabl] adj—долговечный, прочный durability[,djuara'bil3ti] n—долговечность, прочность The fundamental object in proportioning this material is the production of a durable material. The major characteristics of aluminum in which the architectisinterested are its durabilityand light weight.
UNIT 11 . BUILDING THE 18. splitadjv — расколотый,разрезанный,разделенный, разъемный;раскалывать, разделять Itismuch moredifficulttosplitmasonry unitsthan itisto cut them to length. Splitbricks and blockslookbad. 19. proper['props] adj—правильный, соответствующий properly adv— должным образом, как следует, пра­ вильно In building structures special attention mustbe paid to theproper use of materials. The town must workproperlybut itshould also givepleasure to those who look at it. 20. moisture ['moistfs] n— влага, влажность This soil needs moisture. evaporate [i'vaepsreit] v — испаряться, выпариваться The smallpool ofwater evaporatedin the sunshine. 2. Read and translate the following international words. Look up their transcriptions in the dictionary if necessary. Mind the part of speech. Interval n, absorption n, garage n, granite n, ideal adj, industrialize v, travertine n, individual adj, potential adj, degradation n, practical adj, circulate v, progress n v, complex adj, artistic adj,block n, select v, qualify v, utilitarian adj, visual adj, finish v n, extensive adj, alternately adv, perpendicular n adj,base n v, oppose v, protective adj, initial adj. 3. M atch the pairs of antonyms from A and В and translate them. A 1. disconnection 2. disappearance a. solid b. bond В
238I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 3. inappropriate 4. horizontal 5. exude 6. mismatch 7. penetrable 8. fragile 9. whole 10. untie c. appearance d. split e. plumb f. durable g. joint h. absorb i. proper j. fit 4. Match the noun(s) on the left with a suitable item on the right. Use each item once only. 1. The courses 2. The building 3 Stucco 4. A bricklayer 5. Headerbond 6. Rubbers 7.A metaltie 8. M ortar joints 9.Abrickwork pattern 10.A plumb a. is applied wet. b. were pointed. c. create carved brickwork. d. was embedded in connectionjoints. e. are laid horizontally. f. is required to lay straight courses. g. has a brick veneer. h. checks verticality. l. is used for curved walls, j. builds walls. 5. Replace the underlined words with the words below. a) bond e) impart i) moisture b) evaporate f) split j) fit c) cavity wall g) rub d) veneer h) appearance 1.Non-loadbearingbrick facing was applied to a wall to give appearance of solid-bnck construction. 2 .The architect changed the look ofthe building from M editerranean to a more typical Florida look. 3.Thewater inthe reservoir candrv upin the hot summer. 4. Temporary partitionsdividethe space into three rooms. 5.These beams are suitable where loads are great or spans are large. 6. Bricklayers spread abed of mortar with a trowel (aflat, bladed
UNIT11.building the walls 239 metaltool withahandle),place thebrick on the mortarbed, and then press and tap the brick into place. 7 . Almost all homes, apartments, and commercial buildings can experience leaks, flooding, or otherforms of excessive indoordampness at some point. 8 .The inventionprovides adirect connection ofthebricks to the wall supporting structure suchthatthe supportforthebricks isnot dependent upon the non-structuralbackingboard. 9 .The shape of an archgivesitgreat strength. 10 .The air space shouldbe continuous throughoutthehollow wallin orderto obtain thefull benefit ofthe space. 6. Read and translate the following word combinations which come from the texts of the Unit. Mind the use of nouns as attributes in preposition. Look up your dictionary if necessary. Mortar joints, the weather resistance, cavity wall insulation, cinder concrete, concrete masonry units, a water absorption rate, industrial style buildings, a stucco surface, a block wall, block voids, steel rebar, wall strength and stability, steel reinforcement, road sound control walls, face patterns, masonry construction, frost damage, a masonry wall surface, earthquake prone regions, masonry piers, surface features, garden wall bond, one brick thickness, insulation properties, air cavity, a kitchen garden, metal products, a mortar layer, stainless steel wire. 7. Using a dictionary complete the chart with the appropriate word form. In some cases there maybe more than one answer. Verb Noun Adjective Adverb 1 construct 2 evaporative 3 fitly 4 measure 5 serviceability 6 expansive 7 produce 8 additionally 9 occupational 10 vary
240 [ Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей SECTION 2 GRAMMAR 8. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the functions ofthe verb to be Example Hispen ison the table. — Его ручка находитсяна столе. Не wasaskedto come. — Его попросили прийти. Не waswaitingforher at 10 o’clockyesterday. — Он ждалее вчера в 10 часов. Неistocome at3o’clock. — Он долженприйти в3 часа. 1. Each layer ofbricks is called a course. 2. Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound togetherby mortar. 3 Where the bncks are to remain fullyvisible, thisisknown asface-work.4 .Apartments rents are high, so I am looking at adsfor roommates. 5 .The thickness ofa wall which is to be considered in evaluating the quantity ofbrickwork is called nominalthickness ofa wall.6 .Wateris usedin mixingthe mortar to produce a paste in which the bncks can be firmly bedded. 7. Concrete masonry units are usually much laigerthan ordinary bricks and so are muchfasterto layforawall of agiven size. 8 . Mobile homes are becoming more popular, because they are comfortable and inexpensive 9 There is aproblem when I type. There must be a problem with the keyboard 10.When a wall is built ofbncks, the bricks are set in mortar. 9. Read and translate the following sentences paying special attention to the functions of the verb to have. Example He hasa new car. — Унего естьновая машина. (Он имеет новую машину.)
UNIT 1 1 . BUILDING THE WALLS 241 Hehassentaletterto herthismorning. — Сегодня утром он послалей письмо. Не hasbeen waitingforherfor two hours. — Онждетеев течении двух часов. Не hastoget up early every day. — Ему приходится (он вы­ нужден)вставатьрано каждый день. 1.Whenyouhavedecided which areayou are interested m and thought realisticallyabout what sort ofperson you are, then you can decide what sort of engineer you want to be. 2 The blocks sometimeshavegrooves or othersurfacefeatures added to enhance thisinterlocking, and some dry set masonry structuresforego mortar altogether. 3. The bricklayer has to be very skillful to keep the courses exactlylevel and the thickness of mortarbetween each course of bricks the same throughout the length and depth of the wall. 4. M athematicians and scientists (and their universities) havebeen electronically exchanging information overthe Internet since the mid-70s. 5 .Some suburbs consist ofhousing estates, while others were originally villagesthat havebecomejoined to the town asithas grown. 6 . Hehasbeen waitingfor a municipalhousefor the last three years. 7.When bncks are built in curves, as in arches or curved walls, thebncklayerhas to shape the bricks in order to fit them together. 8. A concrete block typically has a lower water absorption ratethan abnck.9 .Thesystem hasbeenprogrammed not onlywithgrammatical rules, but also with the analysis ofa vast quantity ofoffice correspondence. 10 .1am movingto LosAngeles in the fall,but I have to find someplace to live. 10. Complete the following sentences, using the verbs a) to be or b) to havein different functions. Put the verb to create into the most suitable active or passive tense form. a) 1. The first labour union_________in 1905. 2 . The first labour union______________next year. 3. The first labour union ____________ last year (arrangements/plans). 4 . The first labour
242 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей union______________when the plant began doing well. 5 . They _____________ thefirstlabour union whenhebecamethedirectorof the plant. b) 1. The first labour union____________this year. 2 . The first labour union_____________ to protect the workers’ rights at the plant now (necessity). 3 . H e______________the first labour union at the plant this year. 4 . H e______________the labour union to protect the workers’rights atthe plant now (necessity). 5 .Thefirst labour union___________a lot of members now. 11. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the lunctions of the verbs shall/will. Example I (we) shallwritea letter to him. — Я напишуему письмо. Shall1readthistext? —Мне читатьэтот текст? Thefirstpayment shallbemade withinfivedays afterthe delivery ofthe cargo. — Первый платеж долженбыть(будет)произве­ ден в течение пяти дней после доставки груза. You willseehertomorrow. — Вы увидите ее завтра. Willyouclose the window? —Закройте, пожалуйста, окно . 1.Will you be happiest working in an office, in afactory, or outdoors?2.Willyoushut thedoor, please?3.We shall attend the professor’s lecture on building constructiontomorrow. 4 .According to the specification the stone used shallbe hard, sound and free from defects of anykind 5.What shall Isay whenthephonerings and someone asksforyou?6.Almost everything we usein modem life is made by engineers. For example, if a manufacturer wants a faster car, a small personal stereo, or a better pen, they will ask adesign engineerto find apractical solution. 7 . According to the specification asfar aspossible the stones selected for the face work shall be nearly equal in size. 8 . I shan’t tell anyone what happened. 9 .Willyou turn down the sound,please? 10.Shall we stay in this country orgo abroad1*****7
UNIT 11. BUILDING THE WALLS I 243 12. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the functions of the verbs should/would. Example He shouldhelp them . — Ему следует(Он должен) помочь им. Wouldyou mind opening the window? — Будьте добры от­ крыть окно. Не wouldgoto the cinem aifhe had time. — Он пошел быв кино, если быу негобыло время. Не said he wouldreturn soon. — Он сказал, что он скоро вернется. She wouldsitforhours on the riverbank. — Она бывалосиде­ ла часами на берегуреки. 1.Atthe time ofthe Renaissance inthe 15th and 16th centuries a new sort of building specialist emerged. He was usually a philosopher or artist, rather than a craftsman, who would get togethera team ofbuilding workers and make arrangementsto pay them. 2 . If non-concrete (clay-based) bnck is to be used, care shouldbe taken to selectbricks suitable forthe climate in question. 3. What general principals would you keep in mind while supervising brick work under construction? 4. He would finish his project ifhe weren’t ill.5. In the 19thcentury, different contractors would calculate what itwould costto complete a project and then the lowest estimate would be chosen. 6.Thebricks shouldbelaid on a fullbed of mortar. 7 .He wouldhavedone thatgreatdiscovery earlierifhe had had better conditions for work. 8 .Allthejoints should be properly filled with mortar so that no cavity is left in between. 9 . Advances in science meant that building designers could calculate in advancehow abuilding shouldbe constructed to ensure that itwould stand up,instead ofrelying on a system oftrial and error, forit sometimeshappened that abuilding would collapse whileit wasbeingbuilt. 10 Wouldyoupleasebe quiet? I’m trying to concentrate.
2441Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей SECTION 3 READING AND SPEAKING 13. Before you read Text 11A “Bricklaying and Concrete Blocks”, think about the statements given below and say if they are true or false. a) Thebricks mustbe carefullybonded in orderto provide for the mixing of mortar. b) Bricks have lower water absorption than concrete blocks. c) Cavity walls do not prevent heat from escaping from the building. d) Thebricklayerhas to be skilfulto keep each layer ofbricks horizontal. e) Softbricks or rubbers can be built with thin mortarjoints after shaping them. f) Concrete blocks are usedforthe walls ofindustrialbuildings. g) Astucco surface is a sort ofdecoration. h) Surface-bonding cement does not make a wall stronger. 14. Read Text 11A and find out the answers to the true/false statements. Discuss your answers inpairs. • TEXT 11A Bricklaying and Concrete Blocks When a wall is built of bricks, the bricks are set in mortar. Mortar consists of a mixture of sand and eitherlime or Portland cement or, more often, a mixture ofthe two. Enough water is used in mixing the mortar to produce apaste in which the bricks can be firmlybedded. The bricks must be carefully arranged, or bonded asitiscalled,in the wallin orderto produce a structure ofgood strength and appearance, the pattern of the brickwork depending on thebond which is used.Thepointing orfinishing of
UNIT 11. BUILDING THE WALLSj 245 A mason laying mortar on top of a finished course of blocks, prior to placing the next course. mortar joints is also given careful I attention since it affects the appearance and the weatherresist­ ance ofthe wall. Each layer ofbricksis called a course and thebricklayerhasto be very skillful to keep the courses exactly level and the thickness of mortar between each course of bricks the same throughout the length and depth ofthe wall.The corners of the walls must be absolutely upright. Nowadaysthe outer walls ofbuildings oftenconsist of an outer and inner wallwithaspace ofabout5centimetresbetween them, the two layersbeing held togetherat intervalsby small metalties. These cavity walls, as they are called,help moisture evaporate better than solid walls. A layer ofinsulating materialis often put m the space between the wallsto prevent heat escaping from thebuilding. Thisisknown as cavity wallinsulation. When bricks are built in curves, as m arches or curved walls, thebricklayerhasto shape thebricksin orderto fit them together. Sometimesquite softbricks called rubbers are used; these can be rubbed on ahard stone in orderto shape them so accuratelythat they canbebuiltwiththin mortarjoints. Work ofthistypeisknown as gaugedbrickwork anddemandsgreat skill. Blocks of cinder concrete, ordinary concrete, or hollow tile are genencallyknown asconcrete masonry units. They are usually much largerthan ordinarybricks and so are much fasterto layfor a wall of a given size. Furthermore, cinder and concrete blocks typicallyhavemuchlower water absorption ratesthanbrick.They are often used asthe structural corefor veneeredbrick masonry, or are used alone forthe walls offactories, garages and otherindustrial style buildings where such appearance is acceptable ordesirable. Suchblocks often receive a stucco surfacefordecoration. Surface-
246I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей bonding cement, which contains synthetic fibersfor reinforcement, issometimes used in this application and can impart extra strength to a wall. Surface-bonding cement is often pre-coloured and can bestained orpainted thus resulting in afinished stucco-like surface. Theprimary structural advantage ofconcreteblocks m comparison to smaller clay-based bncks is that a concrete masonry unit wall can be reinforcedbyfilling the block voids with concrete with or without steel rebar. Generally, certain voids are designated for filling and reinforcement, particularly at comers, wall-ends, and openings while other voids are left empty. This increases wall strength and stability more economically than filling and reinforcing allvoids Steel reinforcement canbe embeddedinhorizontal mortar joints ofconcrete block walls. The introduction ofsteel reinforcement generally results in a concrete masonry unit wall having much greater lateral and tensile strength than unreinforced walls. Some concrete blocks are coloured, and some employ a split face, a technique that results intwoblocksbeing manufactured as one unit and later splitinto two. Thisgives the blocks a rough facereplicating the appearance of natural, quarried stone, such as brownstone. For applications such as roadway sound control walls, the face patterns maybecomplex and even artistic. 15. Find in T ext 11A the paragraph saying about the advantages of concrete blocks over clay bricks and translate it into Russian. 16. Read aloud paragraph 5. 17. Explain the following references. a) itaffects the appearance ofthe wall. Whatdoesthepronounitreferto? b) Thisisknown as cavity wallinsulation. Whatdoesthepronoun thisreferto? c) in order to fit them together. Whatdoes thepronounthemreferto?
UNIT 1 1 . BUILDING THE WALLS 247 d) thesecan be rubbed on ahard stone Whatdoesthepronoun thesereferto? e) Theyare usually much largerthan ordinarybricks Whatdoesthepronountheyreferto? 0 Theyare often used as the structural corefor veneeredbrick masonry Whatdoesthepronountheyreferto? g) Thisincreases wall strength and stability more economically than filling and reinforcing all voids. Whatdoesthepronounthisreferto? 18.FindinText 11Asomekey words and expressionsto speak about bricklaying. Retell the Text in English. 19. Skim Text 11B “Masonry” and try to understand whatit is about and what information is already known to you. • TEXT 11B Masonry Masonry isthebuilding ofstructures from individual units laid in andbound togetherbymortar; the term masonrycan also refer to the units themselves. The common materials of masonry construction arebrick, stone such as marble, granite, travertine, limestone; concrete block, glass block, and tile. Masonry is a highlydurableform ofconstruction. However, the materials used, the quality ofthe mortar and workmanship, and thepattern m which the units are assembled can affectthe durability ofthe overall masonry construction.
248IАнглийский язык для студентов строительных специальностей Headerbond Masonry iscommonly used forthe walls of buildings, retaining walls and monuments. Brick and concreteblock arethe most common types of masonry inuse inindustnalized nations and maybe eitherweight-bearing or a veneer. Concrete blocks, especiallythose with hollow cores, offer various possibilities in masonry construction. They generally provide great compressive strength and are best suited to structures with light transverse loading when the cores remain unfilled. Filling some or all ofthe cores with concrete or concrete with steel reinforcement (typically rebar) offers much greater tensile and lateral strength to structures. The use of materials such asbnck and stone can increase the thermal mass of a building,giving increased comfort in the heat ofsummer andthe cold ofwinter, and canbe ideal forpassive solar applications. Brick will not require painting and so can provide a structure with reduced life-cycle costs, although sealing appropriately will reduce potential spallingdue to frostdamage. Non-decorative concrete blockgenerally ispainted or stuccoed if exposed. The appearance, especially when well crafted, can impart an impression of solidity and permanence. Masonry is heat resistant and thus providesfire protection. M asonry walls are more resistant to projectiles, such as debris from humcanes or tornadoes than walls of wood or other softer, lessdense materials. Extreme weather causes degradation of masonry wall surfaces due to frostdamage. This type ofdamage is common with certain types ofbrick, though rare with concrete block. If non-concrete (clay-based) bnck is to be used, care should be taken to select bricks suitable for the climate m question. Masonry tends to be heavy and must be built upon a strong foundation (usually reinforced concrete) to avoid settling and cracking. Ifexpansive soils(such as I Flemishbond
UNIT11 . BUILDING THE WALLS 249 adobe clay) arepresent, this foundation needs to be quite elaborate and the services of aqualified structural engineer maybe required, particularly in earthquake prone regions. Masonry boasts an impressive compressive strength (vertical loads) but is much lower in tensile strength (twisting or stretching) unless reinforced. The tensile strength of masonry walls can be strengthened by thickening the wall, or bybuilding masonrypiers (vertical columns or ribs) at intervals. Where practical, steel reinforcements can be added. Thestrength of a masonry wallis not entirelydependent on the bond between the building material and the mortar; the friction between the interlocking blocks of masonry isstrong enough to provide agreat deal of strength on its own. The blocks sometimes have grooves or other surface features added to enhance this interlocking, and some dry set masonry structures forego mortar altogether. Solid masonry without steel reinforcement tends to have very limited applications in modem wall construction. Whilesuch walls can be quite economical and suitable in some applications, susceptibility to earthquakes and collapse is a major issue. Solid unreinforced masonry walls tend to be low and thick as a consequence. Solidbrickwork is made oftwo or more layers ofbricks withthe units running horizontally (called stretcherbricks) bound together with bricks running transverse to the wall (called headerbricks). Each row ofbricks isknown as a course. The pattern of headers and stretchers employed gives nse to different bonds such as the common bond (with every sixth course composed ofheaders), the English bond, and the Flemish bond (with alternating stretcher and headerbrickspresent on every course).There are no significant utilitarian differencesbetween mostbonds, but the appearance of the finished wall is affected. Vertically staggered bonds tend to be somewhat stronger and lessprone to major cracking than a non- staggeredbond.
250j_Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 20. Identify the topic of each paragraph of Text 11B. 21. Answer the following questions. a) What is masonry? b) What are the common materials of masonry construction? c) What arethe mostcommon typesofmasonry? d) Whydo concrete blocks offer variouspossibilitiesin masonry construction? e) What are the advantages ofbricks and stone? f) Doesmasonryprovide fire protection? g) What are the disadvantages of masonry? h) What can helpto avoid the settling offoundations? i) How can the tensile strength ofa wallbe strengthened? j) Whatdoesthe strength of a masonry walldepend on? k) Whydoessolid masonry without steel reinforcement have limited applications? l) What are stretcher and headerbricks? 22. Read Text 11C “Brickwork” and find the answers to these questions. Discuss them with your groupmates. a) How isbrick masonry produced? b) How isFlemishbond created? c)What is a common variation ofFlemish bond? d)What isthe advantage of rat-trap bond? e)Wherewasrat-trapbondin common use? f)What is acommon? g) What do commons usuallyfeature? h) What are ties used for? i) Why are ties expensive?
UNIT 11. BUILDING THEWALLS 251 • TEXT 11C Brickwork Brickwork masonryisproduced when abricklayer usesbricks and mortar to build up structures such as walls, bridges and chimneys. Brickwork is also used to finish openings such asdoors or windowsinbuildings made ofother materials. Where thebncks are to rem ain fully visible, as opposed to being covered up by plaster or stucco, this isknown asface-work. Flemishbond, alsoknown asDutchbond,hashistorically always been considered the most decorativebond, and forthis reason was used extensively for dwellings until the adoption of the cavity wall. It iscreated by alternately laying headers and stretchers in a single course. The next course islaid so that a headerlies in the middle ofthe stretcher in the course below. Again, this bond is one brick thick. It is quite difficult to lay Flemish bond properly, since for best effect all the perpendiculars(vertical mortarjoints) need to be vertically aligned. If only one face of a Flemish bond wall is exposed, one third ofthebricks are not visible, and hence maybe of low visual quality. This is a better ratio than for English bond, the main rival of Flemishbond forload-bearing walls. A common variation found in early 18th centurybuildings is glazed-headed Flemish bond,in which the exposedheaders areburned until they vitrify with ablackglassy surface. Rat-trap bond, also known as Chinese bond, is a typeofgarden wallbond in which the stretchers and headers are laid on their sides, with the base of the stretcher facing outwards. This gives a wall with an internal cavitybndgedbythe headers, hence the name. The main advantage ofthisbond is economy in use of bricks, giving a wall of one brick thickness withfewerbncks than asolidbond.
252 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей Rat-trapbond wasin common usein Englandforbuildinghouses offewerthan threestoreys uptotheturn ofthe20thcentury andis today still used in India as an economicalbond, as well forthe insulation properties offered by the air cavity. Also, many brick walls surrounding kitchen gardens were designed with cavities so hot air could circulate in the winter, warming fruit trees or other produce spread against the walls, causing them to bloom earlier and forcing earlyfruitproduction. InUKbuildingyards what many would referto as a housebrick isknown as acommonwithlargerbreezeblock-like materialsbeing called solids Mortar is often referred to as mud due to its appearance Commons usually feature afrog, an indent in one surface that faces up during laying. This is packed with mud as laying progresses and helps add lateral strength to the layer, as opposed to the vertical strength formedbythe compressive weightof thebrickwork on itself. Tiesare metalproductsthat are approximately the length of a common. They are used to tielayers ofbrickwork into one another. This is particularly important if a building is constructed with an inner and outer wall featuring a cavity where the ties willbe placed through the cavitybetween mortarlayers in the two walls. Thisallowsthe two wallsto functionbetter as one structural unit without filling the cavity with a solid material and so lowering its insulative properties. Ties are simply lengths ofstainless steel wire, around twice as thick as that used to form a steel coat hanger, and have a loop at eitherend that isburied in the mortar as the wallprogresses. Due to being stainless and reasonablythick, they are also somewhat expensive. However, ties mustbe stainless to avoidthem rotting in the alkaline conditions createdbythe cement inthe mortar.
UNIT11 . BUILDING THE WALLS 253 SECTION 4 LISTENING AND SPEAKING 23. Listen to the Text “Masonry Walls”. a) Answer the questions that follow. 1.Why are masonry walls used in multistoreyed buildings? 2.What materials are masonry wallsbuilt of? 3. Where are cavity walls used? 4.What is aheat-flow rate ofcavity walls? 5. What type offraming isused with masonry construction? b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 11A of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about some specific features o fthe foundations of low-rise buildings. d) Tell your groupmates about cavity walls based on the information to be collected. 24. Listen to theText “VeneerMasonry”. a) As you listen, make notes under the following headings. 1 The structure of a masonry veneer wall 2 The construction o f the brick veneer 3 The materials used for a masonry veneer wall
254I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 4 The wall insulation b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 11B of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about a masonry veneer.
UNIT 12 FINISHING THE INSIDE ffi SECTION 1 VOCABULARY AND WORD STUDY 1. Read and memorize the active vocabulary to the text “Interior Finishes of Commercial and Industrial Buildings” and translate the given sentences. 1. gypsum ['djipsam] n— природный гипс gypsum board — сухая штукатурка, гипсовая стеновая плита Gypsumis used in a wide variety of applications. The partition wall made withgypsumboardwasfixed on timberframe work. 2. readily ['redili] adv — легко, быстро, без труда The outstanding characteristic of concrete is that it can be manufactured easdy. 3. meet theneeds — удовлетворять потребностям An area ofdwellings, however well designed, is not by itself sufficient tomeettheneedsof the inhabitants. 4. sandwichpanel['sasnwidj.paenl]— многослойная панель Sandwichpanels are incredibly useful m aterials to form strong lightweight structures used m everyday life.
256 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 5 enclosure [ш'кіэизэ] п— оболочка, корпус, ограждение А significantportion ofthe field ofbuilding science relates to the design and operation ofthe building enclosure. 6. grout['graut] n—жидкий строительныйраствор grout mix — цементный раствор Groutisgenerally composed of a mixture of water, cement, sand and sometimes fine gravel. Thegroutmixshould have high flow and shrinkage properties. 7. suspend [sa'spend] v — вешать, подвешивать suspended ceiling — подвесной потолок Two laige vertical rods anchored in the girders were used to suspendthe girder sectionsfrom the overhead truss. The partitions are fixed to the suspended ceilings. 8. tile ['tail] n v — кровельная черепица, облицовочная плитка, кафель; крыть черепицей, выкладывать плит­ ками ceramic tile [ss'raemik] — керамическая плитка, чере­ пица vinylcompositiontile ['vaml] — виниловая плитка Cement, bricks and tilesare the main building materials used in the construction ofbuildings. Theceramictileson the floor cannot be scratched easily by people walking on them . Vinylcomposition tileshave high resilience to abrasion and impactdamage. 9. terrazzo [te'rartsau] n—бетон типа “тераццо” (с запол­ нителем из цветной каменной крошки), пол из бетона “тераццо” When the terrazzo is thoroughly dry, helpers grind it with а gnnder, which issomewhatlike afloorpolisher, only much heavier.
UNIT 12. FINISHING THE INSIDE I 257 10. epoxy resin[l'poksi]— эпоксидная смола Epoxyresinis an exceptional adhesive for wood, metal, glass, stone, and someplastics. 11. drywall[,drai'wo:l] n— гипсокартон Hanging and finishing drywallrequires certain skills. 12. fire resistance — огнестойкость Fireresistanceindicates how well abuilding component holds back fire and prevents itfrom penetrating from one room to another. 13. coat ['ksut] nv— слой, покрытие; покрывать, грунто­ вать finish coat — отделочный слой applycoat — наносить слой, покрытие, грунт skim coat — накрывочный слой (трехслойной штука­ турки) This wall will need two coatsofpaint. Finishcoatisthe last coat appliedon the surface after the under-coat isproperly dry. Skim coat is an ideal material to cover and level defects in concrete. 14. nail['neil] n v — гвоздь; забивать гвозди screw [skru:] nv — винт, болт, шуруп; привинчивать Неhammered anailintothe wall andhung apicture on it.We nailedup the windows ofthe old house. I needfour strong screws forfixing the cupboard to the wall. He screwedthe handle to the door. 15. secure [si'kjua] v— укреплять, закреплять, зафиксиро­ вать Attach thebeam with wood screwsthat are theproperlength to properly securethebeam. 9 Зак 312
258IАнглийский язык для студентов строительных специальностей 16. lime ['laim] п— известь limeputty ['pAti] — известковое тесто Limehasbeen used inbuilding techniques for over5,000 years. The process for creating limeputty involves the combination of lime chalk with water to produce a variety ofdifferent products. 17. lath [1q:0]n — штукатурная сетка (решетка) lathnail — штукатурный гвоздь The new lathswill then be painted to match the existing finish. Lath nails are standard looking, with a long smooth shaft and a flat head, and can be used for a number ofpurposes. 18. transparent [traens'paerant] adj— прозрачный translucent [traens'lu:snt] adj— полупрозрачный Glassistransparentbut wood is opaque. Some recommendations were developed fordesigning sheet glassin translucentstructures in industrial and socialbuildings. 19.doorframe —дверная коробка, рама If thedoorframebreaks, there is limited opportunity for repair. 20. taper(ing)[Чеірэ(гц))] adj— конусообразный, сужива­ ющийсякконцу Each reinforced concrete wall column is made up offourtapering columns with floorslabs spanning between them. 2. Read and translate the following international words. Look up their transcriptions in the dictionary if necessary. Mind the part of speech. Perforate v, synthetic adj, institutional adj, vinyl adj, composition n, adhesive n adj,prevalent adj, substrate n, amateur n adj, ornamentation n, identical adj, acrylic adj, laminate v, optional adj, contrast n, primitive adj,perfection n, ingredient n.
UNIT 12. FINISHING THE INSIDE 259 3. Match the words with the definitions below. a) grout b) nail c) drywall d) lime e) screw 0 enclosure g) lath h) tile i) gypsum j) terrazzo 1. a longflat narrow piece ofwood/metal used to supportplaster 2. concrete floor finish containing chips of marble 3. a wideplasterboard used to cover walls, ceilings orpartitions 4. a piece ofbaked clay used for covering roofs, walls, floors etc 5. a thin mortar used to fill cracksin masonry 6. a soft white chalklike substance from which plaster is made 7. exterior assemblyenclosing the interior space of abuilding 8. a thinpointedpieceof metal forhammering into wood 9. a type of nail that is driven into something by a twisting action 10. a white substance obtainedbyburning limestone 4. Match the English word combinations with the Russian equivalents. 1.grout mix 2. transparent 3. epoxy resin 4. finish coat 5. translucent 6.gypsum board 7. meet the needs 8. suspended ceiling 9. lime putty 10. ceramic tile 11. fire resistance 12. sandwich panel a. сухая штукатурка b. подвесной потолок c. огнестойкость d.цементный раствор e. известковое тесто f. многослойная панель g. керамическая плитка h. эпоксидная смола i. прозрачный j. полупрозрачный k. отделочный слой l.удовлетворять потребности
260 [ Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей S. Read and translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the meaning of the words and word combinations given below. I. a) ready adj— готовый b)readyathand — находящийся подрукой c) readiness п— готовность d) in readiness — наготове e) readilyadv— легко, без труда I. The evaluation of site readiness is necessary to identify aspects of the site that may affect a project outcome. 2. A well-built birdhouse should be durable, rainproof and readily accessible. 3. The excavator is ready to dig on the construction site. 4 . W ater and sewer pipeswerestackedin readinessfor building construction. 5. Palm computing devices are ready at hand. 6 . Ready-mix concrete helpsto reduce construction-site pollution. 7 . Bricklayers desire a mortar notto be sticky, enabling thebricklayerto readily transfer the mixed mortar from the surface ofhis trowel onto the masonry elements being laid. II. a)frame n— конструкция, сооружение, каркас, рама b)frameofroof— стропильная система крыши c) roofframing — несущие конструкции крыши d)framework п—рамная конструкция, каркас e) withintheframework of — в рамках, в пределах чего-л . 1.This house usestrusses forthe roofframing. Trusses are pre­ fabricated, tnangulated wooden structures used to supportthe roof. The alternative is to build up the frame ofthe roofwith 2x8s and 2x10s. 2 . The indicated circumstances should be considered in designwithin the framework ofthe geotechnical system. 3 . Ifyou choose to build atimberframe home, yourfirst choice is whether to cuttheframe on or offsite. Ifyoucutyourownframe offsite, don’t forgetto budgettime and moneyforgetting all ofthe frame timbers to the building site. 4 . The block of office buildings was builtofconcrete on a steelframework.
UNIT 12. FINISHING THE INSIDEJ 261 6. Read and translate the following groups of sentences paying attention to the words in italics which can function as a noun and a verb, or a verb and an adjective, or a noun and an adjective, with the same form. They can have similar or different meanings. Look up your dictionary if necessary. 1. a . They gave instructions for installing ceramic wall tile. b. He added beauty to hishome with new tileflooring. c. They gave some advice how to tilea wall. 2. a . Afterthe first coatofbasepaint dries, apply another one. b It is very cold, so wear a heavy coat. c. Coatxhtsurface with two layers ofpaint. 3 a Make the windows securebefore leaving the house. b. They could securethe connectingplates to thebeams. c. This company can securea good civil engineeringjob. 4. a. They could nottaperthe widthofabeam at eitherend. b. The structures have a slightinward taper. c. They are studying the axialbehaviour oftaperbeams. 5. a . The growljoints have been filled. b. Wipe tileswith a damp cloth to remove excessgrowl. c. Grout alljoints other than areas that need to be left as expansionjoints. 7. Using a dictionary complete the chart with the appropriate word form. In some cases there maybe more than one answer. Verb Noun Adjective Adverb 1 dividable 2 secure 3 insulation 4 flexibly 5 useful 6 resist 7 comparative 8 suspension 9 directly 10 binder
SECTION 2 GRAMMAR 262 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей 8. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the meaning and use of the modal verbs and their equivalent forms. 1. Flooring must support whateverloads are to be placed within the structure, and it musttransmititsload tothe structural frame. 2. M any new functional buildings had to be built quickly and cheaply. 3 A goodpaint should stick well to the surface and should be able to seal the porous substrata. 4. The quantity surveyor emerged in the late 19th century as a professional specialist in building finance, who was able to accurately predict the cost of a project. 5.An entire house canbedrywalledin one ortwo daysby two expenenced drywallers, and drywall is easy enough to use that it can be installed by many amateur home carpenters. 6 . Each coat should be permitted to dry thoroughlybefore the next coat is applied. 7 . These partitions are expensive compared with gypsum board and must be moved to justify the greater initial cost. 8. Hundreds of new apartment homes are to be built for the population. 9 . The plastered surfaces may be finished in a variety offorms. 10.Most oftheearlyhousesbuiltinAmerica were suited to farm life, as it was not until citiesbecame manufacturing centres that colonists could survive without farming as their major occupation. 9.Define thepart ofspeech and thefunction ofthe words with the -ed ending in the following sentences. 1. Very early in the history ofGreek architecture plaster of a finewhite lime stucco was used, such hasbeenfound at Mycenae. 2. For their finest work the Egyptians used a plaster made from calcined gypsumjust like platter ofPans ofthe present time, and W
UNIT 12. FINISHING THE INSIDE 1 263 their methods ofplastering on reeds resemble in every way our lath, plaster, float and set work. 3 . There are two main methods used in construction oftheintenor walls of modem homes, drywall and plaster. 4 . The removable panels are supported on agrid of formed sheet-metal tee bars which are suspendedby wires. 5. Space- division systems in these buildings make use of gypsum board partitions, usuallyapplied to a framework offormed sheet-metal members attached to thebuilding structure. 6 .Where accessibility isnot important and a smooth finishisdesired, suspendedgypsum board ceilings canbe used. 7 .Drywall constructionbecameprevalent as a speedier alternative to using plaster based interior finish techniques, which involved forcefully spreading a substrate of coarse plaster onto the walllath-work beforefinallyapplying the smoother finish coat, each layer added in succession and all by hand. 8.Whilemost toolshave remained unchanged overthe centuries, developments in modem materials have led to some changes. 9.Concreteblockis usedin unfinished spaces and forfire-resistive partitions. 10 .The pyramidsin Egyptcontain plasterwork executed atleast fourthousandyearsago. 10. Identify the -m g forms and translate the following sentences. 1. After removing the old paint, the cleaned surface is given two or three coats of the paint, to obtain the desired finish. 2. Being permeable to moisture, emulsion paints can be applied on wet surfaces. 3 . Space-division systems in these buildings are readily demolished and rebuilt at relatively low cost, meeting the need for flexibility in such buildings. 4 . Having obtained the necessaiy results, we stopped our experimental work. 5 . Mud plaster isgenerallyappliedin two coats, thefirst coatbeing 13 mm thick whilethethicknessofthesecond coatiskept6mm. 6 .Drywall fasteners aregaming populanty inboth residential and commercial construction. 7 . The surface of the patches ofplaster serves as gaugesfor maintaining even thickness oftheplasterbeing applied. 8. Painting enables the masonry and concrete work to resist
264[Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей disintegration, thereby extending the life ofthe structure. 9 . After the sheets are secured to the wall studs or ceilingjoists, the seams between drywall sheets are concealed usingjointtape, and several layers ofpaint compound. 10 . Depending upon the availability of the materials, the choice ofplaster for any particular location is governed by weather conditions and the finish desired. 11. Read and translate the following sentences in which the Infinitive is used in different functions. 1.Thesurfaceto beplasteredispreparedinthe same manneras thatforlime or cementplaster. 2 .To ensurethe requiredthickness the patches of plaster are applied horizontally. 3 . The most importantpurpose ofaddingpigmentin apaintisto make an opaque coating to hide the surface to bepainted. 4 . During theprocess of finishing, a solution oflimeputtyisapplied on the surfaceto make the surface smooth and workable. 5 .Plastering isrequired to provide a satisfactory base fordecorating the surface by white-washing or painting.6 .In drywall a specializedform of sheet rockknown as greenboardis screwed onto the wall-frames ofthe hometo form the interior walls. 7 .Painting with the spraygun is considered to be a highly developed and efficient m ethod of applying all types of protective coatings. 8 . Plastering is the process of covering rough surfaces with a plastic material to obtain an even, smooth and durable surface. 9 . The seams are covered with mesh tape and then the seams and the screw heads are concealed with the drywall compound to make the wall seem as one uniform piece. 10.This type ofsheet rock isdesigned to absorb the moisture oftheplaster and allowit to clingbetterbefore itsets. 12. Use the word given and other words to complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first one. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. 1 Itlooks asifthey leftlast night. seem T h e y ________________________________________l a s t n i g h t .
UNIT 12. FINISHING THE INSIDE 265 2. Please sing us another song, John. persuade They tried to _____________________________________a n o ther song. 3.The explanation wasso complicatedthat I couldn’t understand it. too The explanation________________________________ to understand. 4.They sayhe’s livingin Moscow. said H e _____________________________________i n M o s c o w . 5.He’s too youngtosee thefilm. enough H e is n ’t ________________________________________to se e th e film . 6.1don’t suppose you know where helives, doyou? happen D o _____________________________________ w h e r e h e live s? 7.Why did you allow them to leave early yesterday? let You sh o uldn ’t __________________________________ early yesterday. 8. Older people often have difficulty finding ajob. difficult I t ’s o f t e n _____________________________________ f i n d a j o b . 9. If I were you, Kate, I ’d wear a different pair of shoes. advised H e ___________________________________ a different pair of shoes. 10. I’d ratheryou came at six o’clock. prefer I _________________________________________ c o m e a t six o ’c l o c k .
здесь должны быть стр. 266 и 267
Floor finishes in commercial and institutional uses make considerable use of synthetic-fibre carpeting and vinyl composition tile. In areas of higher traffic harder surfaces may be used, for example, cut stone tiles of marble or granite, ceramic tile applied with epoxy adhesive to the substrate or terrazzo. Terrazzo is made in two ways, traditional and thin-set. In the traditional form a four-centimetre layer of cement and sand grout ispoured over the substrate; a grid of metal divider strips to control shrinkage cracks is set on the hardened surface, and grout mix o f coloured cement and marble chips is poured between the stnps. After hardening, the surface is machine polished to expose the maible chips and metal dividers. Thin-set terrazzo is made by placing the metal strips and pouring the binder and marble chips onto the subfloor without the underbed of cement and sand. It is generally possible only when epoxy resins are used in place o f cement binders. Terrazzo is available in many colours, and it forms a hard, smooth, and durable surface that is easily cleaned. 15. Find in Tex t 12A the paragraphs saying about different types o f partitions and translate them into Russian. 16 . Read aloud paragraph 3. 17. Explain the following references. a) They are readily demolished and rebuilt at low cost What does the pronoun they refer to? b) They are often used for fire-resistivUprotective enclosures What does the pronoun they refer to? c) Ceiling finishes in these buildings create a sandwich space What does the demonstrative adjective these refer to? d) to change the service elements located above it What does the pronoun it refer to? 268 I Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей
UNIT 12. FINISHING THE INSIDE 269 e) itforms a hard, smooth, and durable surface that is easily cleaned. Whatdoesthepronoun itreferto? 18. Underline or mark the mainideas ofText 12A and retell it 19. Skim Text 12B “Drywall” and try to understand what it is about and what information is already known to you. • TEXT 12B Drywall Drywallisthe term used for a common method ofconstructing interior walls and ceilings using panels made ofgypsum plaster pressedbetween two thick sheets ofpaper, then kiln dried. Many such panels are made with fiberglassinstead ofpaper to prevent moldgrowth, whichis common withpaperthathasbeen exposed to water due to plumbing leaks orfloods. Drywall construction is used globally for the finish construction of interior walls and ceilings. Drywall construction became prevalent as a speedier alternative to using plaster-based interior finish techniques, which involved forcefully spreading a substrate of coarse plaster, known as thebase made up ofthe scratch coat and brown coat, onto the wall lath-work before finally applying the smoother finish coat, each layer added in succession and allby hand. Drywall, by contrast to plaster, requires hand finishing only atthe fasteners and joints. The drywall process requires less labour and drying time, lending its name to the panels used in the assembly. Asopposedto a week-longplaster application, an entire house can bedrywalledin one ortwo daysbytwo experienceddrywallers, and drywallis easy enough to use that itcan be installedbymany amateurhome carpenters. In large-scale commercial construction, the work ofinstalling andfinishing drywallis often splitbetween the drywall mechanics, or hangers who install the wallboard and the
270 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей Example ofdrywall hung vertically with joint compound tapers and mudmen, or float crew who finish the joints and cover the nailheads withdrywall compound. Drywall is cut to size using a large T-squarebyscoringthepaper on thefront side (usually white) with a utility knife breaking the sheet along the cut, scoring the paper backing, and finally breaking the sheet in the opposite direction. Small features such asholesfor outlets and light switches are usually cut using a keyhole saw or a small high-speed bit in a rotary tool. Drywall is then fixed to the wall structure with nails, glue ordrywall screws. Drywall fasteners are gainingpopulanty inboth residential and commercial construction. Drywall fasteners are used for supporting interior drywall comers and replacing the non-structural, wood or metal blocking that traditionallywasused to install drywall.Theirfunction serves to save on material and labour expenses, to increase energy efficiency, and to make plumbing installation simpler. After the sheets are secured to the wall studs or ceilingjoists, the seams between drywall sheets are concealed usingjoint tape, and several layers ofthe compound sometimes called mud.This compound is also applied to any screw holes or defects. Alternatively, for a better finish the entire wall may be given a skim coat, a thin layer offinishing compound, to minimise the visualdifferencesbetween thepaper and mudded areas afterpainting. Anothersimilar skim coatingisalwaysdone in a process called veneer plastering, although it is done slightly thicker. Veneering uses a slightlydifferent specialised setting compound (finish plaster) that containsgypsum andlimeputty.Thisapplication usesblueboard whichhas specialtreatedpaperto accelerate the setting ofthegypsum plaster component. Thissetting hasless shrinkage than the air-dry compounds usedindrywall, so itonlyrequires one coat. Blueboard hassquare edgesratherthan the tapered-edge drywallboards. The tapered drywallboards are used to countersink the tape in taped
UNIT 12. FINISHING THE INSIDE 271 jointing whereas the tape in veneerplastering isburiedbeneath a level surface. 20.Give a briefoverview ofthe structure and contents ofText 12B. Relate each heading to the corresponding paragraph. a) The drywall installation. b) Veneer plastering. c) The trade workers installing drywall. d) Drywall finishing. e) The areas in which drywall is used. 21.Complete the sentences choosing thebest variant according to Text 12B. 1)Gypsum plasterpanels are made with a) paper. b) fiberglass. c) clay. 2) The drywall process requires a) much labour. b) plaster finishing. c) manual finishing. 3) A house canbe drywalledby a) carpenters. b) hangers. c) tapers. 4) Drywall is cut to size using a) a high-speed bit. b) a keyhole saw. c) a utility knife.
5) Finish plaster contains a) clay. b) lime. c)gypsum andlimeputty. 22. Read Text 12C “Plasterwork” and find the answers to these questions. Discuss them with your groupmates. a) What does plasterwork referto? b) What is theprocess ofcreatingplasterwork called? c) Why isplasterwork regarded as one ofthe most ancient of building techniques? d) What were aplasterer’s tools inEgypt? e) Where wasplaster of a fine white lime stucco used? 1) What are the changes in modem plasterers’tools? g) What are specific features ofdrywall and plaster? h) What are the differencesbetween veneerplastering and the drywall method? • TEXT 12C 2 7 2 J Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей Plasterw ork Plasterwork refersto construction orornamentationdone with plaster, such as a layer ofplaster on an interior wall or plaster decorative moldings on ceilings or walls. This is also sometimes calledpargeting. Theprocess ofcreatingplasterwork calledplastering hasbeen used inbuilding constructionfor centuries. Plasterwork is one ofthe most ancient ofbuilding techniques. Evidence shows thatthe dwellings of primitive man were erected in a simplefashion withsticks and plastered with mud.Thepyramids in Egyptcontain plasterwork executed atleastfourthousand years ago, probablymuch earlier, andyet hard anddurable atthepresent time. From recentdiscoveriesithasbeen ascertainedthatthe tools ofthe plasterer ofthat time were practically identical in design, shape andpurpose with those usedtoday. Fortheirfinest workthe
A plasterer covering a wall, using ahawk (in his left hand) and float (in his right hand) UNIT 12 . FINISHING THE INSIDE Egyptiansused aplaster made from calcined gypsum just like plaster of Paris of the present time, and their methods ofplastering on reeds resemble in every way our lath, plaster, float and set work. Hair was introduced to strengthen the material. Very earlyinthehistory ofGreek architecture plaster ofa fine white limestucco was used, such hasbeen found at Mycenae. The art had reachedperfectioninGreece more than five centuriesbefore Christ, andplaster wasfrequently used to covertemplesexternallyand internally, in some cases even where the building was of marble. It formed a splendid ground for decorative painting. Tools and materialsinclude trowels, floats, hammers, screeds, scratching tools, utility knives, laths, lath nails, lime, sand, hair, plaster ofParis, a variety of cements, and various ingredients to form colour washes. While most tools have remained unchanged over the centuries, developments in modern matenalshave led to some changes. Trowels constructed from steel are available in a polycarbonate material that allows the application of certain new acrylic-based materials without staining the finish. Floats traditionallymade oftimber are often finished with alayer ofsponge or expandedpolystyrene. Thereare two main methods usedin construction ofthe interior walls of modem homes, drywall andplaster. In drywall a specialized form ofsheet rock known asgreenboard(ycleptbecause on the outer paper coatingisgreenish)isscrewed onto the wall-frames(studs) ofthe home to form the interior walls. Attheplace where the two edgesof wallboards meetthere is a seam. These seamsare covered with mesh tape and then the seamsandthescrewheads are concealed withthedrywall compoundtomakethewallseem asone uniform
274 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей piece. Laterthisispainted or wallpapered overto hide the work. Thispro-cess is called taping and those who usedrywall areknown as tapers. Veneerplastering differsfrom the drywall method in a number of ways. The two most notable differences are that a thin plaster coat coversthe entire wall and notjust the seams, and secondlythe drywall compound is a thick paste whereplaster method uses a great deal of water and is applied very wet. Anotherdifference is that wallsintended to beplastered are hanged withblueboard (named as such forthe industry standard ofthe outerpaperbeing blue- greyin colour).This type of sheet rock isdesigned to absorb some ofthe moisture oftheplaster and allowsit to clingbetterbefore it sets. Plastering is also a one-shot one-coat application; taping usuallyrequires sanding and then adding an additional coat since the compound shrinks asitdries. From a supplyside the cost of plaster and drywall are approximatelythe same, but thelabour cost o fplastering is usually much greater. SECTION 4 LISTENING AND SPEAKING 23. Listen to the Text “Interior Finishes of Residential Buildings” . a) Answer the questions that foDow. 1.What do interiorfinishes define? 2.What isthe most widelyused wallfinish? 3. How is wet gypsum plaster cast? 4.What areasisgypsumboard usedin? 5.What are the finishes ofdoors? 6.Where are plastic laminates used? 7. What finishes are used for floors?
UNIT 1 2. FINISHINGTHEINSIDE 275 b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 12A of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about different types of interior finishes. d) Tell your groupmates about some other types of interior finishes based on the information to be collected. 24. Listen to the Text “Plaster Slabs”. a) Which of these statements are true and which are false? 1.Nowplaster slabs are usedinthe areasin which work should be finished quickly. 2. Plaster slabs are finished with a coat for ceilings. 3. Plaster slabs are nailed to fireprooffloors. 4. Slabs are grooved forpartitions. 5.Iron rods are installedin slabsto reduce the work strength. 6.A keyed surface of slabs requires finishing. 7.A finished surface may bepainted before making thejoints. 8. Partitions can alsobeformed with metaljoints. b) Check your answers with your groupmates and Tapescript 12B of the Text. Look up the words you do not know in the dictionary. c) Retell the Text about plaster slabs.
SUPPLEMENTARY READING TEXT 1 CIVIL ENGINEERING'S IMAGE — A FIVE -YEAR UPDATE by Les Ham ill, Liz Hodokinson Five years ago thisjournal reported that the civil engineering profession was relatively invisible to youngpeople that universities were struggling to fill places and that many practitioners were dissatisfied. Since then there has been a welcome improvement. The same authors now find that civil engineering isfeatured regularly on television, applications to universities are up and practising civil engineers seem happier. This coincides with civil engineers enjoying a relatively high workload and being offered improved salaries and more flexible, family friendly working patterns. Unchanged, however, isthe verylow proportion ofwomen entering the profession. In May 2003 the authors published a paper in “Civil Engineering” describing the “invisibility” of the civil engineering profession, its relatively poorimage in schools and how this might be improved.Thispaper reviews the changes that have taken place during the lastfiveyears. In 2003 a number offactors were adversely affecting civil engineering's image. These are summarised briefly below. — Applications to study civil engineering at university had fallen by around 50% between 1995 and 2001, resulting in the closure of some courses. - In 2000, 61% of accepted home applicants to engineering and technology degree courses held A/AS-levels and 15% of a Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC) national
SUPPLEMENTARY READING 277 diploma or general national vocational qualification (GNVQ). UsuallyА-level entrants to civil engineering must have mathematics but, in 2001, a 29% failure rate in the “new ” AS-level maths (introduced aspart ofthe 2000 curriculum reforms) significantly reduced the number ofcandidatesforthefullА-level.Compared to its BTEC national diploma predecessor, the advancedgeneral national vocational qualification (AGNVQ) contained insufficient mathematics. - Many young people associated engineering with car mechanics and dirty, manual, low-status work. Civil engineering and construction were alsoperceived by many as adirty, manualjob that couldpotentiallybe “boring” . - Surveys indicated that around 70% of sixth-form students claimed to “know nothing” about civil engineering and construction, and 62% would not considerit asa career. - The image ofa male-dominated construction industry was unattractive to manygirls and someboys. - The starting salary ofgraduate civil engineers was relatively low, which discouragedpeople fromjoining the profession. - 82% of practising civil engineers thought that they were undervaluedbytheir employer and64% had consideredleavingthe industry in the last year. The authors made a number of suggestionsfor improving the image of civil engineering. These included increasing the starting salaries ofgraduates, engaging in apublic relations campaign involv­ ing positive news releases and television programmes, and a sustained commitment to positively promoting the profession in schools through the use of exciting hands-on activities and work experience. When consideringthe changes ofthe lastfiveyears, it is useful to consider how they fit into a longer time frame. The business writer, Charles Handy, claimed that many things are cyclical and can be represented bythe sigmoid curve — like a sine curve or horizontal S. The curve represents relative success with time, and may be used to chart anything from the rise and fall of empires to aproduct’s life cycle. Both civil engineering's workload and universities’recruitment are cyclical.
278I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециаленчетей Universities ’ recruitment increases. Onegood numencalindicator ofthe “health” ofcivilengineering is how many school students w sh to enter the profession. The number of home civil engineering applicants to the Universities and CollegesAdmissions Service (UCAS) reached the bottom of the current section ofthe sigmoid curvein 2002, and then experienced a modest increase. This benefits both the construction industry, which hasbeen struggling to recruit enoughgraduate civil engineers, and universities’civilengineenngdepartments, which need sufficient students to remain economicallyviable. The University of Plymouth, where both authors work, runs separate degree courses that lead to chartered and incorporated engineerstatus. Despite more UK students now going to university than ever before, the number ofhome students admitted to the chartered coursein the 2000sislowerthan in the 1980s. Inbetween there have been highs (96 students) and lows (25). Many factors influence these numbers, including the image and popularity of civil engineenng compared to itscompetitorprofessions. In 1997 anything associated with computers and electronic engineenng was seen aspositive and futunstic. The highpoint of computing’s sigmoid curve was2001, whenthere were24054home applicants to UCAS forcomputer science; in 2006 there were 10 684, a fall of 56%. Applications for electronic and electrical engineering have also fallen sharplyin the last few years. Theirloss may have contnbuted to civil engineering’s recovery. Anotherinteresting long-term fluctuation isthepercentage of students admittedto the course at PlymouthwithA-Ievels.At around 60% itiseffectivelythe same in the mid-2000s asin the early 1980s. Again, there havebeen highs(82%)and lows(25%).Almost all of these students have apass in А-level maths, a subject which itself has experienced fluctuating popularity. Following the 2000 curriculum reforms, there was a29% failure inAS-level maths in 2001, which resulted in a 19% reduction in candidates forA-levcl maths andfurther maths in2002. The resulting alarm triggered adjustm ents to the maths A-level, whichfrom 2003 onwards hasbeen monitored independently of furthermaths. Since 2003, theproportion ofcandidates achieving the highest grade, A , has increased steadilyto 44% in 2007, with
SUPPLEMENTARY READING 279 a further 21% obtaining grade B. Thisis relatively high compared to many othersubjects. There hasbeen some debate asto whether or not this represents a real improvementin standard. Some suggest that schools arebeing very selective about who they allow to take А-level maths, others that grade inflation has occurred. It isbeneficial to civil engineering that the possibility of achieving highgrades now appears to be encouraging students to takeA-level- mathsandfurthermaths. Indeed,2007sawthe highest number of candidates since 2000. Vocational qualifications have also experienced somedifficulties. In the mid-1980sthe BTEC national diploma wasrevised;initially it contained insufficient maths, but thiswasrectified sothatin 1993itprovidedthe majority ofentrants to Plymouth’s course. The BTEC nationaldiploma wassuperseded by the mathematically weak AGNVQ and these students started arriving at Plymouth in 1995.Theill-conceivedAGNVQ wassoon replaced and,by2002, Plymouth received students with the new BTEC nationaldiploma. Thiscan contain two mathsunits, but frequentlyonlyoneistaken (out ofa total of18)somathematics may representonlyaround6% ofthe course. Thisis muchlessthan the maximum of 33% obtained from three А-levels. Thus new nationaldiploma students are often relativelyweakin mathematical skills. In the 2000s, BTEC national diploma students represent a minority ofPlymouth’s entry. Civil engineering education suffers from two continuing problems:Britain’s aversionto mathsand thelower academic status afforded to construction. In 2007,plans arewell advancedin schools for the new “work-related” 14—19 diplomas. These are the equivalent oftwo to threeА-levelsinlength ofstudyand willprovide another route into higher education. Available from September 2008, subjects include engineering and construction and the built environment. TheUK EngineeringProfessors’Council complained that the new engineeringdiploma contained only around one-sixth ofA-level maths, which isinsufficient. Atthe eleventhyear, some additional mathematicshasbeen added. The construction diploma contains muchless mathematics, and itisdoubtfulthat, byitself, it will enable students to be successful on university chartered-level engineering degree courses.
280I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей Civil engineering’s improving image. The Institution ofCivilEngineers is to be commended forits contributions to the media through reports such as “The State of the Nation” and forits efforts to promote civil engineering through publications like “The Little Book of Civilisation” . Civil engineering has also been the subject of a variety of entertaining television programmes, a recent example being National Geographic’s “Megastructures” series, which featured the design and construction ofthe BuijAl-Arab hotel andTheWorld islands in Dubai. Such programmes help overcome the invisibility ofthe profession and are to be welcomed. Although civil engineering’s popularity, as gaugedby university applications, has increased recently, engineering as a whole still has image problems. Despite an overall 18% increase in home applicants to UCAS between 1994 and 2006, engineering’s share ofthe total fellfrom around4.8% in 1994to 3.2% in2003 and 2.9% in 2006. However, the UK isnot alone:Australia and Germany are also experiencing a shortage ofgraduate engineers. In Germany, where engineering is traditionally a respected profession, the declining status of engineering isbeingpartially attributed to the rise ofthe environmental movement in the 1970s, which caused people to questionthe impact oftechnology on societyand the environment. In 2003 the authors described a similar reaction in the UK. Civil engineering had a favourable image in the 1980s and early 1990s, when prestigious projects like the Thames Barrier and Channel Tunnel were headline news. This image was tarnished by environmentalprotests atTwyford Down, Newbury and elsewhere. As concerns about climate change increase, will there be a new cycle of environmentalprotests? In M arch 2008 nationaltelevision news gave extensive coverage ofprotestors opposed to airtravel and the extension ofHeathrow airport. Ofall ofthe engineering disciplines, civil engineering is arguably best placed to overturn the environmentally unfriendly, boring image. There are many exciting and importantprojects currently in the news, including improvementsto railways and new sports stadia such asfacilitiesforthe London 2012 Olympics. The fate offlooded
SUPPLEMENTARY READING 281 New Orleans underlined what mighthappen to London ifthe Thames Barrier and its associated flood defences are not upgraded in the next 20 years. Major proposed urban developments such as the Thames Gateway arepossible onlywith adequate flood defences. The widespread flooding experienced across central England during the summerof2007not onlyhighlighted theimportance offlood defences, but also reminded everyone that a water supply and adequate sewerage should not be taken forgranted. Ifglobal warming makes Britain’s climate more extreme, theproblem ofcoping with floods and droughts maybecome more challenging. Ofcourse, image is also influenced by earningspotential. Here there is mixed news for civil engineering. Civil engineers are still relatively poorly paid compared to professional engineering as a whole. Additionally, in 2003 surveys appeared to indicate that the majority of civil engineerswere unhappy with their chosenprofession and that 64% would consider leaving. In contrast, in 2007 they were apparendythe happiest intheirfield, with58% being “always happy” and only 21% saying they would considerleaving. Working on a wide variety of projects contributed to this new-found happiness, which coincides with the industry enjoying a relatively high workload while a scarcity of civil engineering graduates has contributed to higher salaries. However, the industry is cyclical. Thenext downturn may reduce salaries andbenefitsagain, increase problems with the retention ofqualified engineers, and make the profession less attractive to school students. There continues to be much good workbeing done in schools to promote engineering careers, and many ofthese involve hands-on activities designed to be inspirational. There is some loose coordinationofactivitiesbut, as in2003, there canbe a confusingly large number of competing events available to teachers. To some extent this isinevitable, as different professions, careers, and trades compete to secure thebest supplyofindividuals. Foryoungpeople in schools it can be rather bewildering, especially since careers guidance continues to be minimal, which isperhaps one reason why stereotypes are so hard to change and manypupils continue to opt forwhat they know orfeelis a safe or traditional choice.
282 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей Women т civil engineering. Just as nursing isfrequently criticised forbeingpredominandy female, so engineering iscnticised forbeingpredominantly male. Women now represent around 56% ofallhome university applicants, but civil engineering does not reflect this. In 1994, 11% of the home applicants to civil engineering were women, 15% in 2000 and 13% in 2006. Here it is more of a horizontal line than a sigmoid curve. One obviousbarrierto women entering engineering isthe gender biasinА-level subjects: in 2007womenformed69% ofthe candidates in English but only 22% in physics and 40% in maths, this last showing a small but steady increase recently. Other reasons why women are not attracted to engineering, and to civil engineeringin particular, havebeen discussed elsewhere. Arecent surveybyAtkins suggestedthatfearsabout unequalpay and careeropportunities are stillprevalent in construction and deter women from entering.In2003, around 38% ofthe students entering architectural studies, but only 13% ofthe architecturalprofession as a whole, were women. Thisdiscrepancy was not attributedto a poorcareerchoice or a lack of academic orpractical ability,but to the failure oftheprofessionto retain women. Someofthe reasons women leave could also affect men. These include low pay, long and inflexible or non-family-fnendlyworking hours, macho culture, sidelining, unequalpay, sexism and lack of returner training after maternity leave. Recommendations to counterthis include embedding ofgender equality inuniversities’ curricula, inclusion of equal-opportunities practice in the professionalbodies’codes ofpractice, more affordable and flexible continuing professional development, mentoring and advisory or helpline support. Many civil engineering companies have adopted more flexible, family-friendly working patterns and benefits that are no doubt appreciated byall employees. Nevertheless, the industry isstill male- dominated and relatively unattractive to women. Itis, of course, perfectly reasonable ifwomen decide that they do not want to be engineersafterhaving had accessto good careers advice, andperhaps
SUPPLEMENTARY READ ING 283 having taken part in one ofthe many experiential activities on offer from universities and industry. It isdisappointing ifthey are deterred from entering the profession through ignorance of what itis really likeor unintentionaldiscrimination once they get there However, everyone agrees that engineering needs to lecruit the best young minds — and halfofthesebelongtowomen Conclusion. Civil engineering is in better health now than in May 2003. The profession is more visible than itwas, the decline m university applicants has reversed,graduate shortages combined with a high workload means employment and starting salaries are relativelygood, and most engineersarefairiyhappy in their work. However, civil engineering is a notoriously “boom and bust” industry, and one of narrowprofit margins. The dangeristhat the next downturn in workload will reduce salaries again and re-establish a macho long-hours culture atthe expense of many ofthe flexible, family-friendly workingpractices that have been adopted. Thiscan only result in the profession regaining its “unhappy” tag with a relatively low status, a poorimage and recruitment and retention problems. Theclimatic extremes ofthe summer of2007, whether a blip of nature or a precursor ofglobal warming,havebroughtto the public’s attention theproblems offloodprotection, drainage, water supplies, sanitation and transportation systems. There have been fewbetter opportunitiesforthe civilengineeringprofession to present itselfas the keyproviderofthe essential servicesthat have solong been taken forgranted. Civil engineering isnot about the past, it isabout the future, and civil engineerscan make adifference. The time to ensure thefuture iswhen things aregoing well and the highpoint ofthe sigmoid curvehas notyetbeen reached. Bythe time thepeakhaspasseditistoo late. Theprofession should aim to maintain into the future the progressthat has alreadybeen made, continue to improve the areasthat are still unsatisfactory andgive some thoughtto new initiativesthat mightbeintroducedto enhance furtherboth the image and the reality ofcivil engineering. (New Civil Engineer International, November, 2008)
284I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей ^ТЕХТ 2 ENGINEERING DESIGN IN THE TIME OF THOMAS TELFORD by Bill Addis Thomas Telford, the Institution of Civil Engineers’ first president, was bom 250yearsago thisyear. Hiscareerspanned a half-centurythat saw some ofthe most remarkable changesin the way European engineersapproached thedesignofbuildings, bridges and machines Thispaper reviewsthe development of engineering design, science and education during Telford’s era, revealing that Britain wasthen farbehind France, Germany and other European countries. Through the work of Telford and others, Britain’s engineers embraced the practical experimental approach that scientists throughout Europe had developed in the eighteenth century to generate new engineering knowledge and understanding. Bythe early nineteenth century Britain was emerging as a leading engineenng nation. The eraspannedbyThomasTelford’s life(1757—1854)isusually characterised asbeing the period when wrought and cast ironbegan replacing the traditional materials of stone, bricks and timber for the construction of buildings, bridges and machines. However, these were notthe only changesto the world of engineering. Thesame halfcentury saw many otherdevelopmentsthat affected how engineers undertook design and construction. These developments were takingplace all over continental Europe — from Scandinavia to Russia, Italy and Spain — and news ofthem usually travelled fast, either through open visits by leading engineers, via non-techmcal travellers, or by means of military and industrial espionage Telford was a gregarious man — indeed, promoting contact between engineerswasone ofhis reasonsforbecomingpresident of the newly formed Institution ofCivil Engineers in 1820 — and itis more than likelythat he was aware of everything mentionedin the following review of the world of engineering design during his lifetime.
SUPPLEMENTARY READ ING 285 Buildin g with new materials. Concrete. Telford’slife coversthehalf-century whenthe useofconcrete becamefirmlyestablishedin the construction industry. It had been widelyused m France in marine engineering and forbridge foun­ dationsby the mid-eighteenth century. John Smeaton (1724-1792) discovered hydraulic cement on a trip to the Netherlands and experimented to achieve thebest mix designbefore using itforconcrete (orbeton asitwasthen called) in his Eddystone lighthouse (1756-1759) and in the foundations ofHexham Bridge (1777). Bythe early nineteenth century, itwas being widelyused m Britain in the construction ofthe docks and harbours, for examplein London’s docks, as foundationsforthe docks andbuildings and for mass concrete walls. Telford used abed of concrete for the foundations ofhis St Katherine’s docks(1826).Althoughthe chemistry ofconcrete was established in the late eighteenth century, mainly by French scientists such asVicat, the modem understanding of mix-design was not gained until the early twentieth century through the work of US engineering scientist DuffAbrams. Wrought iron. Wroughtiron hadbeen in widespread use in Europe since the late middle ages, both formilitary use — armour, cannon , other enginesofwar and shipbuilding, and for civil use — intools and forload-bearing applicationswhere timber wasinsufficientlystrong, stiff, or durable. Notable uses were for tied masonry arches in many large churches, a practice dating from the sixth century in theMiddleEast, andtheiron chainsusedinthedome ofStPeter’s in Rome (1550-1570) and by Christopher Wren at St Paul’s cathedral in London (1670-1710). Most large timber roofs had iron straps to carry tension forces acrossjoints and support long timber tie-beams. Wren used iron ties to support a mezzanine flooratHampton Court near London, and to helpsupport large, first-floor bookcases at Trinity College library in Cambridge. Makingbest use ofJeanTijou, hisFrench iron master atStPaul’s, Wren also used wroughtiron in 1692-1693 to make columnsto supportthebalconyinhis refurbishment ofthe chapel ofStStephen at the House ofCommonsmWestminster.
286 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей Cast iron. The use of cast iron in Europe also had its origins in military applications — notablythebarrels ofcannoninGermanyfrom the mid-fifteenth century. The columns used to support the kitchen chimneyinamonastery nearLisbonin 1752werealmost certainly an exampleof marketdiversificationbythe local cannonfoundry. Smeaton was one ofthefirst engineersinthe 1750sto use castiron consistentlyforthe components of millsthat were most subjectto wear, and the first all-cast-iron machinery for a flour mill was builtin 1784.Thefirst cast-iron I-section rails were made byJessop in the 1780s. The iron bridge, completed in 1779 in Shropshire near the modem town ofTelford, was builtasa massive advertisementfor new uses of cast iron, and a number of nearby churches featured the earliest use ofcastironin an architectural context, where columns were used to support balconies. Cast-iron columns in industrial buildings were used by William Strutt (1756—1830) in a number ofbuildingsin the DerwentValley,beginning withthe cotton mill in Derby in 1792 — 1793. The first cast-iron floor beams were used byThomas Bage in the flax mill at Shrewsbury in 1796-1797. Steel. The manufacture ofboth wrought and castiron improvedduring thisperiod, both as a result ofthe direct practical experimentation in foundries and also using the results obtained by a number of scientists, notably bythe Frenchphysicist Reaumur, whose book “The art of converting iron into steel and making cast iron softer” (more malleable), was published in 1722, and the Swedish metallurgistT.0 . Bergmann, who established the important effect ofcarbon content on the properties of alloys ofiron in the 1760s. Riveted, wrought-iron boilersfor steam engineswere being made from the 1750sand flatsections and rods ofwroughtiron werebeing rolled (rather than hand-forged) in Sweden in the 1740s and in England from the early 1780s. Making buildings more fireproof. The increase in use of wrought and cast iron in buildings was largelya consequence of many fires in theatres and in multi-storey factories and warehouses that had often resulted in terrible loss of
SUPPLEMENTARY READING 287 lifeaswell astheloss ofbuildings and the expensive manufacturing or theatncal stage m achinery inside The French architect Jacques-Germain Soufflot wasprobably the first to take what would now be called a fire-engineering approach to the design of buildings for his theatre in Lyons, completedin 1754.He notonlysoughttoavoidtheuseofflammable materials, he also installed water tanks and hosepipesabove the stage, he created strict compartm entalisation between the stage, dressing rooms and auditorium, and the stairwayswere made entirely ofstone and enclosedbysturdyfiredoors. Towards the end ofhis life (1781) he wasresponsible for the first all-iron, fireproof rooftruss, in the Louvre palace. This idea was used a few years later by the architect Victor Louis in his Theatre Francais in Paris, which had an iron rooftruss spanning 22 m aswell as a ceiling to the auditorium made using fireproof poteries — hollow clay pots and iron. News of this fireproof construction soon reachedWilliam Strultin Derbyshire, who used hollow claypotsin some ofthejack archesin hisfireproofmills and warehousesfrom 1792.DruryLanetheatre inLondon wasthefirst to be fitted with an iron safety curtain in 1794. Material strength a nd stiffness. One characteristic of engineers is that they use calculations to raise their confidence that aproposed designwill work. Forload- bearing applications, the two key quantities are the strength and stiffness of materials. In Telford’s time, theseproperties of materials were effectivelyembodiedfor common applicationsin well-known standard dimensions of, for example, timberfloorbeams or roof trussesofvarious spans. Thedimensions ofthe elements ofmasonry buildings and retaining walls were also wellknown among the special­ ist dealing with these crafts; thistradition wentback many centuries. The useofiron, however, presented new challenges. Not only were itspropertieslittleknown in the mid-eighteenth century,but there were no long-established standard designsand, most impor­ tantly, being a manufactured material, its properties varied significantly according to the source ofthe iron. It was both the needfor engineersto know materialsproperties and thegeneral inquisitivenessofscientiststhat led to thegrowth of
288IАнглийскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей materials testing m the early eighteenth century. The most notable was Petrus van Musschenbroek,professorofphysics atthe University of Utrecht and later at Leyden, whose encyclopaedic book of materials properties, published in 1729, became a standard reference work for over a century. Many scientists in continental Europe followed Musschenbroek’sexample in the second halfofthe century. Whereas finding an explanation of the stiffness and strength of materials such astimber, iron andbrickwork was still farin the future (the earlytwentieth century), this was not true ofthe strength and stiffness of soil. The first such explanation, based on imagining an idealised soil as a senes of spheres, was made m the 1690s. Charles Augustin Coulomb (1736 — 1806) was building on the theoretical work of severalFrench scientists when hepublished his seminalpaper on the subject in 1773. Nevertheless, the use ofthis modem approach to soil mechanics was nottaken upbyengineersin Bntain untilthe mid-nine-teenth century when simple design rules for earth embankments, dams and retaining walls began to be replaced by analytical methods Developing structural theory. By Telford’s time, scientists of materials and structures were ableto relate the strength and stiffnessofbasic structural elements — beamsand columns — to the strengths ofthe materials, measured in tension or compression. M usschenbroek had also already demonstrated in the 1720s that the buckling load for a column varies directly with its cross-section and inversely as the square of its length. Thiswasconfirmed in theoretical terms in the 1750sby Euler who introduced the conceptof second moment of area and proved the relationship that bears his nam e using theoretical mechanics. The fact that in, for example, 1780, engineers did not use the approach fortimber elements wasbecause there wasno need to do so — there was alreadysufficientprecedent. Thischanged with the use of cast iron which,beingboth new and expensive, demanded a rigorousapproach to designing minimum-weight structures. The cast-iron columns usedby Strutt in 1792were cruciform in section to achieve anincreased second moment of area whilebeing easyto
SUPPLEMENTARY READ ING 289 cast. They were also thicker at their mid-height, the better to resist failurebybuckling. By 1800 more efficient hollow, cylindrical columns ofconstant sectionhad replaced the cruciform type. The very earliest cast-iron beams, both for railway tracks by Jessop in 1780 and inbuildingsby Bage in 1796, had longitudinal sections that reflectthe bending moment — either “fish-belly” or “ hog-back” . Bageperformed competent calculationsforthe strength ofhisironbeams and confirmedhispredictionswithprooftests. Although theparallelogram offorces was well understood bythe late eighteenth century,Telforddid not see the analysis offorcesin pin-jointed frames ortrusses. The main reason wasthat frameworks forroofs and bridges were still seen mainly asstructures for resist­ ing bending (i.e . solid beams with large holes), rather than an assemblage of tension and compression elements. Nevertheless, the first “rational” and potentially statically-determinate iron roofs were constructed in his lifetime, for example in severalbuildings in Birmingham and in Manchesterbetween 1810 and 1825. Full-scale and model testing. Since Musschenbroekperformed most ofhis tests to establish materialproperties, the size ofspecimen hadbeen consideredlargely irrelevant. However, engineersknew that many phenomenawere not independent of scale. From the mid-eighteenth century, engineers — such asthose atthe RoyalMilitaryAcademy atWoolwich and the Ecole desPonts et Chaussees — began testingfull-sizebeams and columns oftimber and ironto verifypredictionsbased on tests ofreduced-scale components and on the theoretical understanding of internal stressesgenerated inbending and buckling. Telford,for example, built several models ofthe chainsforhis Menai suspensionbridge in 1814 — including one 15m long at a scale of1:20 —to establish the tension atthe ends and to verifythe shape ofthe chain underbridge-deck loads. Engineersatthistime were notyet using dimensionless constants to scale up the resultsof model tests — a technique developed firstin the 1860sfor hydro­ dynamics by William Froude and first exploited in the design of dams and concrete structures in the 1930s. Nevertheless, models were sometimesusedby engineers, for example Telfordbuilt several models ofthe chainsforhisMenai suspensionbridgein 1814 — 10 Зак 312
290[ Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей including one 15 m long at a scale of1:20 —to establishthe tension at the ends and to venfythe shape ofthe chain underbridge-deckloads. Drawing in three dimensions. While plans, sections and perspective drawings were well established before the eighteenth century, these were oflimited use in dealing with complex three-dimensionalgeometry.Thisproblem attracted the growing interest of engineers in the early eighteenth century, especially for drawing large stones of irregular shape — the science of stereotomy. By drawing stones before construction began it was possible to prefabricate all the stones necessary to construct a vault, for example, and then assemble them quickly — very m uch more quickly than the traditionaltechnique of cutting a stone only when the adjacent stones beneath and to the side had been cut and placed. Although this technique was well established in the whole of continental Europe by around 1740, it was little used in Britain and there is no evidence that Telford used it. The method of graphical representation familiar today as orthographic, or third-angleprojection, was devisedbythe French engineer Gaspard Monge (1746-1818). Called “descriptive geometry”byhim, itwasdeveloped as a new means ofsetting out fortificationsin rugged terrainin orderto balance the cut and fill and also “defile” thefortification — which means ensuringdefending cannon could attack key surrounding areas and that thefort was not vulnerable to attackbycannon mounted on nearbyvantagepoints. Thewholeprocess was extremelycomplex to calculate using three- dimensional co-ordinate geometry, highlyprone to error, and could take several weeks. Imagine the surprise ofhis commanding officer when the young Monge completed thistask in onlyafewdays. The commandant’s first reaction was disbeliefbut, on checking the work, this turned to wonder. Monge’s technique was quicklydeclared a state secret and, by around 1800, was taught in all the French military academies. Its use gradually escaped into civilprojects and the public domain, including England,bythe mid-nineteenth century. Facilitating calculations. The calculations that could be perform ed using drawings and geometrical constructionshadbeen enhancedbythedevelopment oforthographicprojectionby Monge.
SUPPLEMENTARY READING J 291 Generally speaking, though, it was the surveyors rather than draftsmen who were the most numerate among those involved in construction. Their work involved mapping the terrain and landscape, setting out new works such asbridges, roads and canals, as well as estimating the quantities of matenals involved, including excavations, cut and fill, and construction matenals rangingfrom brick, dressed stone, mortar, timber and iron to glass, lead and tiles forbuildings. Land surveying required great accuracy that could be achieved onlyby hand calculations and the use of six-, eight- or sometimes ten-figure tables of loganthms, tngonometnc ratios, squares, cubes and roots. By the late eighteenth century there was a small but growing number of engineers, especiallyin continental Europe, who were highlytrained in mathematics and were familiar with both complex analytical geometry and calculus. Belidor’s book “Architecture Hydraulique” (1737-1753) was the first engineering book to use calculus, for calculations of water flow. Nevertheless, such sophisticated mathematics wasbeyond most engineers’ abilities and needs. Most significant of all, thisperiod saw engineers starting to use the slide rule for calculations that required no more than three- figure accuracy — that is most oftheirday-to-day calculations. The slide rule had been devised in the 1620s, very soon after the inventionoflogarithms, and was used mainlybyastronomers and navigators. By about 1770itwasknown to some engineers, but we can onlyguessat how widespread its use was. The firm of Boulton & Watt recognised the usefulness of the slide rule and,from the mid-1770s, began making what came to be knownas “Soho Scales” — nam ed alterthe company’s Birmingham works — as a sideline to its steam-engine business. The first guidance in an engineeringbook on how to use a slide rule wasin “A Treatise ontheSteam Engine” byJohn Farey(1827), at atime when slide rulesgenerallystill did not have moving cursors to ease their use. AlthoughTelford wouldhavebeen aware ofthe useofcontour linesto showdepths ofthe sea, which weredevisedbythe French geographer Ph. Buache in 1737, he did not live to see the rapid 10*
292 [ Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей developments in the graphical representation of numerical data during the 1840sthat increased the speed ofperforming engineering calculations. Charts devisedby Leon Lalanne, the pioneerofthis technique, showed, for example, how to represent an entire year’s data for temperature and wind speeds in a single diagram. He alsopublished charts for multiplication or division ofnumbersby graphical means. Improving engineering education. The specialist education of civil engineers grew out of various schools of military engineering in continental Europe, especially in France, in the late seventeenth and earlyeighteenth centuries. The first school of engineering open to the public wasin Prague, now in the Czech Republic, in 1707 — a school that proudly celebrates its history back to 1344, when the Prague Public Engineering and MetallurgicalSchool wasfounded. The famous Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees opened in Paris in 1747under the directorship ofthe bridge engineer Jean-Rodolphe Perronet. The Ecole des Mines followed in 1783 and the first of many ecolesd’arts et metiers,which were ratherless academic than the Ecole des Ponls et Chaussees, though hardly lessprestigious, opened in 1780.The EcoleCentraledesArts et Manufactures was formed in 1829.Otherschools were opened to addressthe technical needs ofcraftsmen too, forinstance the Ecole Royale Gratuite de Dessin — the RoyalFree SchoolofDrawing — which wasfounded in 1766. Theidea ofpolytechnical education, dedicated to harmonising theory and practice, spread through continental Europe with remarkable speed. Seven polytechnic schools were formed in Germanyin the first 30yearsofthe nineteenth century. InAustria schools were formed in Prague (1806),Vienna (1815) and Cracow (1833). There were no similar schools in Britain during thisperiod. The establishments that served anything like the role ofthe continental polytechnics were a number of military academies that trained engineersforthe army and navy, the most famous ofwhich was the Royal MilitaryAcademy at Woolwich in east London, established in 1741.
SUPPLEMENTARY READING 293 Edinburgh University was the first to offerlectures on applied mechanicsinthe 1790s, but such a course was not intended aspart of a programme to produce academically trained engineers. Engineers in Britain were largely self-educated in their spare time untilthe mid-nineteenthcentury. Publishing books a n d periodicals. The first comprehensivebooks on civil engineering, which also served many ofthe needs of military engineers, were bythe military engineer Bernard Forest de Belidor (1697-1761). His first, published in 1729, was “LaScience desIngenieurs”. Despite its title, however, it contained relatively little engineering science as we know it(science m eant bodyofknowledge). Belidor’s second book, “Architecture Hydraulique” (1737— 1753), in four volumes, was radically different. Its style and mathematical rigourfollowed that of a scientific textbook.These books were followedby many more written bythe engineerswho gavecoursesatthegrowing number ofpolytechnicsin continental Europe. Both Smeaton andTelfordhad copiesofBelidor’s “Architecture Hydraulique” in theirlibraries and Telford owned many more of the French classic engineering texts published in his lifetime, including the encyclopaedic “Art of Building” by Jean Rondelet (1805-1810) and books describing bridge projects by Perronet (1788) and Wiebeking (1810) at a time when there was nothing equivalentinEnglish.He also owned severalGermanbooks — six byJacob Leupold,datingfrom the 1720sand abook on hydraulic engineering by Wiebeking (1811-1813). Of the books in English in the libraries ofSmeaton andTelford, thegreat majority were on m athematics and physics. While anumber of scientific academies, especially in France, publishedpapers ofinterest and relevance to engineersduring the eighteenth century, thepapers ofthe Ecole NationaledesPonts et Chausees were the first entirely devoted to civil engineering. The firstperiodical,published with the intention ofkeepingprofessional engineers informed ofdevelopments, was produced in 1797 by Johann Eytelwein (1764-1849), an engineer in Berlin’s building departm ent.
294 [ Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей Conclusion. For the whole of the eighteenth century and well into the nineteenth century, France led the world in terms of developing engineering science and trying to use it in engineering design. Nevetheless, Smeaton and Telford were among the world’s leading engineers, and Britain saw many ofthe world’s leading engineering projects. The marked contrast in the nature and level of engineers’ education, and their approach to engineering designbetween Britain and continental Europe, remained wellinto the twentieth century. (New Civil Engineer International, May, 2008) ^ TEXT3 WINDY CITY WONDER by Jessica Rowson Clever engineering has meant that North America’s tallest residentialbuilding willbe solid as a rock despite its windy location. Nestled among the forest ofskyscrapers on the Chicago skyline, the 92 storey Trump Tower is currently notching its way up to become the city’s second tallestbuilding.The 415 m tower willbe completed in January 2009.The stepped concrete building hasbeen designed to reflectthe height of nearby buildingsby architect and engineer for the project Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM). The first step aligns with the 130 m high Wrigley Building, the second the 179m high Marina CityTowers, and the third the 212 m high IBM Plaza, known as330 North Wabash. As important as these steps — also known as setbacks — are architecturally, they also have an important engineering role as they each contain an outrigger stability system. These 5.3 m deep by 1.7 m wide concrete monoliths transferlateral loadsbetween the perimeter columns and the central core. SOM associate partner Robert Sinn explains that the lateral shear resistance of the core and overturning resistance ofthe perimeter structure are mobilised by linking them at discrete levels using outrigger trusses or beams. He adds that this meansjust a few heavier vertical elements are
SUPPLEMENTARY READING 295 needed on the perimeter to keep the building stable, freeing up the facade. The outrigger beams take up a storey height and are heavily reinforced. In some areas conventionalbars are even replacedby an equivalent area of steel plate to ease congestion. Contractor Bovis Lend Lease is using self compacting concrete to penetrate densely reinforced areas. Surprisingly, the tall building does not require dampers to limit its movement. This is because of the stabilising effect ofthe heavy concrete core and columns and the setbacks. The asymmetric setbacks change the cross section ofthe building, so changing the frequency of wind passing it This means that vortices, which would causethebuildingto move more, cannotbuild up. Any massivebuilding needs massivefoundations. Thebuilding sits on 30 m long piles founded on bedrock.A permanent steel liner, which seals the excavation, cuts through 18 m of stiff clay and 12 m ofboulders andfractured rockto form a socketin solid rock. On completion the Tramp Tower willhold the record for the world’s highest residentialbuilding,but only forayear. Alter that it willbe dwarfedby the 610 m, 150 storey Chicago Spire. Finite element analysis. Engineershad to deal with theinherentproblem ofthe uneven load distribution of a massive, asymmetrical building and its tendency to move sideways underitsownweight. Thesolutionwas to carry out a time-based finite element analysis on the structure so that movements could be predicted and compensated for during construction. BovisLend Leaseused these resultsto make millimetre adjustments at every storey to bring thebuildingback to plumb. Non-linear analysis predicted the short and long term displacementofChicago’s Trump Tower, whichincluded the effects ofcreep and shrinkage. Ifno horizontal correction hadbeen made during construction, the roofcould have moved300 mm out ofline due to the combined effects ofgravity, creep and shrinkage. Foundations. A 3m deeppiled raft waspoured continuouslyoveraperiod of 22 hours. The concrete was poured using conveyor belts so that veryfewvibrators were needed;the temperature had to be carefully
296[ Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей controlled as the concrete cured due to the raft thickness Ifthe differentialtemperature across the depth was too laige, stresses would set up and lead to micro cracking. (New Civil Engineer International, October, 2007) ^TEXT 4 " ROSSIA" WITH LOVE by Jessica Rowson Europe’s tallest skyscraper isbeing built in Moscow. Ifyou’re thinking of designing a tall building, make it at least 600 m or nobody willbat an eyelid. Moscow’s latest addition to the 600 m plusclub isthe 612 m high, RossiaTower, a cool 2 m higher than the Chicago Spire. Rossia’s site is currently being cleared to make way forwhat will be Europe’s tallest building. The skyscraper will incorporate retail and office space, a hotel and apartments on its 120floors, three ofthem below ground level. To the untrained eye, Rossiais an elongatedpyramid, or rocket shaped structure, but on the inside, the structure tells a different story. At its base there are three colossal, high strength concrete abutments clamping the whole structure down. Each abutmentforms thebase ofthree wings ofthebuilding, from which columns radiate. The wings converge at a central spine, or concrete core, which runs thefullheightofthe tower. ConsultantsW aterman International and Halvorson havedesignedthe steelframe and composite floor structure. The plan andprofile ofthe building take on the efficient geometry of a triangle to achieve maximum stability using the minimum amountofmaterial. Initially architect, Foster & Partners, designed the tower as three discrete blocks, arranged in aY shape inplan. But this meant that each block wastoo slender, having a heightto width ratio of 10:1. “ Structural solutions were possible for this option of independent towers, but at these aspect ratios, the solutions would be inefficient,” explains W aterman International project director Hugh Docherty. The decision was made to merge the blocks, so
SUP PLEMENTARY READING J 297 they leaned into the central core The sloping parallel columns could then brace the corelaterallyaswell as carrying verticalloads. The resultwas a more efficient heightto width ratio of5:1. “ So in terms ofheightto base, thebuildingissquat,” saysDocherty The design was starting to look like the familiarform of a cable stayed mast. However instead of tension cables, Rossia uses the sloping columns to act in compression — propping the central core and essentiallyacting like three dimensional arches. The fan columns carrygravityload and wind overturning forces as direct axial loads. And as the weight of the building and its inhabitants exceeds the design wind load in the majority of the columns and core, there is little tension in the system. Piling contractor Soletanche is currently building a diaphragm wall on the site, but it will be at least sixyearsbefore the 100 m tall mast crowns thebuilding. The tower’s three wings comprise steel and concrete columns whichfan out from the three massive abutments atthe base. Visually, this gives the form of a tripod supporting the rest ofthe building — a structural form known forits efficiency. “Three legged stools are great. With four legs you start to bring in redundancy,” says Waterman International project director Hugh Docherty. Having established the path for vertical and lateral loads, the remaining challenge was torsion. The facade of the wings is stiffened by a series of “reverse fan columns” whichtriangulate thefacade. “ The wings are designed as boxes with crossed bracing. These resist twisting,” he explains. The rigidfacade isfurther stiffened by steel chevronbracing up to the fourth floor on the outer edge of each wing. This provides sufficient torsional stiffness. But a structure with sloping columns causes otherproblemsin theform ofhorizontal loads amassing at the base. “We used tension ties in the raft to stop the feet from spreading.We could havepropped against diaphragm walls or relied onfriction, buttension ties werethe most controllable option,” says Docherty. The construction sequence requires the fanning columns to be designed for erection loads Later they will be encased in reinforced concrete to achieve the final strength for permanent loads. (New Civil Engine er International, February, 2008)
298I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей ^ТЕХТ 5 KARACHI CRACKER Building a super tall tower in Karachi calls for international know-how and an understanding oflocal subcontractors’capabilities. In Karachi, Pakistan’s second city, a tall building is characterised as anything over 10 storeys. The loftiest have reached 20.So itisno overstatement to say that the 78 storey Karachi Port Tower, construction of which is scheduled to start this year, will transform the city’s skyline. Compared to the Buij Dubai, which will be the world’s tallestbuilding at 146 or more storeys, 78 storeys doesn’t sound so remarkable. But KarachiPort Towerwillbe the tallest building on the Indian subcontinent. Building on this scale in Pakistan is a one-off and poses some interesting challenges. Nobodyin the country hasevercarried out a site investigationfor a building of this size before. Exceptionally deep and large foundations are required but localbatching plants are not equipped to produce concrete in the volumes and strength required. The specialist falsework, formwork, cranage and concrete pumping equipment needed for ultra-nigh buildings does not yet exist in Pakistan. “ Construction will require international know-how, but with localknowledge. Threejoint ventures offoreignmain contractors withlocalfirms have been shortlisted,” revealsMott MacDonald director Steve Gregson, who is leading structural, facade, mechanical and electrical, and fire engineering. “ But whichever of the three is selected, they will be heavily reliant on local subcontractors.” Throughout the designprocess a close eye hasbeen kept on buildability and making the structure suitable for local conditions and skills. Client KarachiPortTrust isthe port authorityand operator and isalso a majorproperty and infrastructure owner. Itisundertaking the project on a speculative basis. In addition to office space it also wants housing, a hotel and a conference centre, and it specified “som ething iconic” . Mott MacDonald and architectAedas won the design competition last year and are taking the design to “detailed
SUPPLEMENTARY READING 2 9 9 concept” stage. Offices will occupyground level upto floor58, a hotel will take up floors 59 to 76 and the top two floors will be apartments and leisure facilities. The contractor willbe appointed to deliver the $396 M plus scheme under a FID1C design and build contract. Steel construction is rare in Pakistan, so Karachi Port Tower will be built from concrete. It will consist of a cylindrical core ringed by columns at the building perimeter. Structurally, square cores are stiffer, Gregson notes. The cylinder was specified for architectural reasons and to achieve spatial efficiency within the circularfootprint ofthetower. Butlack ofstiffnesshasbeen more than made upforbyincreasingthediameter ofthe core to 31.5 m and tying in the ring ofperimeter columns. The core size and other aspects ofthe structural design were dictated by the post-9/11 rethink of fire evacuation from tall buildings, drivenbyMott MacDonald’s fire specialists. “You used to be told ifthere’s a fire, evacuate using the stairs,” saysJustin Garman, one ofMottMacDonald’sfire engineers. “ButtheWorld Trade Center disaster showed that stair capacity wasn’t enough, and that some people were physically incapable ofdescending tens ofstoreysbystair. “So now, for very tall buildings, lifts are being looked on as integral to the fire evacuation strategy.” Lift capacity has been designedfor an officepopulationdensityofonepersonper11 m2, so there willbe a lot ofthem. KarachiPortTower willbe equipped with a combination of express and local lifts. High-speed lifts, movingpeopleoverlarge numbers offloors, will bedoubledickers. Passengers will then catch locallifts from transition zones to their destined floor. Overthe height ofthe towerthere willbe three transition zones. Structurallythese are very different to the tower’s typical open plan floors. Floor slabs throughout the tower will be 260 mm thick post-tensioned concrete, stiffenedby a400 mm deep edge beam. Columns willbe tied into the circular ring by an 850 mm-deep downstand. But the two-storey transition zones wifibe offar heavier construction, with thicker floor slabs and heavily reinforced concrete outriggershear walls running from the core to the building
ЗООIАнглийскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей репmeter columns. Each zone willhouse a technicalfloordedicated to building services, and a fire-proofed refuge It is to these refuges that people willbeled iffirebreaks out. They willbe speeded to ground level in express lifts. The transition zone shear wallsplay an important role in linking the core and columns. Gregson saysthat at the lowest ofthe technical floors the stiffening effect ofthe outriggerwalls is minimal. “When we modelled the structure wefound wedon’t need outriggerwalls there, so we’ve omitted them and gained a significant cost saving.” Design has had to deal with the old problem of axial shortening between core and columns underdead load. This occurs when a structural memberis squashedbythe weight ofthe structure above. The tallerthe column, thegreaterthedegree ofpotential shortening. Sized purely for structural efficiency, columns would have shortened by more than 75 mm, Gregson notes “You can allow for a degree of axial shortening by introducing a slight camber into the floor slab. That camber comes down as you build the structure up, and the floor ends up level.” But a greater than 75 mm correction was at the edge oftechnical feasibility. Columns have therefore been sized to reduce stress and shortening. In plan they are elongated triangleswith rounded comers, measuring 2 m wide by 3 m deep. Column sizes diminish as they rise up the building — first in width, then in depth. Gregson saysthat lowerdown the tower, axial shortening could havebeen reducedby specifying very high-strength concrete. “ But we want to keep the concrete mix within the realms ofwhat isfeasible in Pakistan.” Achieving C 100 would require the use ofexotic additives andprecise mix control. C65 concrete willbe easierto batch and m ore foigiving in construction. Concessionsto thelocal construction market have alsobeen made in the arrangement of columns and in the tower’s foundations. “W e initially looked at following the spiral with the colum ns, so they wouldhavebeen raking,” recallsGregson. However, “to make them work it would have required very heavy reinforcement and precise steel fixing. Because there’s no precedent forabuilding of this height in Pakistan, we felt it sensible not to add avoidable complexity.” Thoughcolumns are oriented to the curvature ofthe
SUPPLEMENTARY READING 301 facade, an alternative way ofexpressing the spiral wasfound, says Gregson. “The spiralis achieved by cantilevering the floorplate by just over 3 m on opposing sides ofthe tower. Asyougo up the tower, the cantilever moves around a few degrees.” (New Civil Engineer International, M ay, 2008) ^TEXT 6 WARSAW WONDER Careful adaption of an existing two-storeybasement in Poland’s capitalhas meantthat itcan take the increasedloadfrom the new 54-storey Zlota44 residentialtower. Warsaw, Poland’s capital, is something of a surprise. The city was almost destroyed in the Second World Warand fewer than a fifth ofits buildings were left standing. Its redevelopment under the country’s post-war communistgovernment was, for the most part, relatively modest, with the notable exception ofthe impec­ cably reconstructed old town. Elsewhere, stark, system-based construction produced ahard- to-love, M odernist architecture known as social realism. In recent years the city hasembraced the obligatoryglass-and-steellook ofthe modem city.Butthattoo is setto change withanincreasing number of iconic landmarkbuildings by high-profile international archi­ tects in the pipeline. A new movement. Zlota 44 is a 192 m-tall residential tower designed by US- based architect DanielLibeskind, who wasbom in Poland to parents who had survived the Holocaust. The building is part of a new movement that is, according to Libeskind, redefining Warsaw “ through culture, fashion and an unrivalled approach to living” . Thismaybeso, buttheproject could alsoplay animportant role in redefining Poland’s fledgling geotechnical community. Foun­ dation designon theprojectisbyArup, whose Polishgeotechnical group is led by Mariusz Leszczynski. Leszczynski, who cut his teeth working as ageotechnicaldesignerforBuro Happold in the
302 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей UK, says Poland’s geotechnical sector is largely underdeveloped. Most geotechnical and foundation design work, he says, is carried out by structural engineers who are “geotechnicalby experience”. A few university professors ran consultancy practices as a sideline and they aredeemed custodians ofthe nation’s geotechnicalknowledge. ForArup, ithasbeen something of an uphillstruggle to develop a market for top-end consultancy based around geotechnical expertise within a commercial private business. But through projects such asZlota 44,Arup’s geotechnical capability isbeginning to be recognised among Poland’s wider engineering community and, more importantly, the development and investment community. Arup’s foundation design has taken practical Polish geotechnical engineenng to new heights of sophistication, as well as saving the client money. Developer Oreo G roup’s gleaming new 54-storey edifice will occupy a centralWarsaw location across the road from the imposing Palace ofCulture and Science, an architectural show­ case from the communist era. Oreo’s site was previously occupied by a seven-storey office development constructed in 1989, with two basement levels all founded on a raft. When built, it was the first application of diaphragm wallsin the city.A major challenge is the factthat the site is constrained on all sides, with neighbouring buildings just 600mm from thebasement wall.Theoriginalintention to provide fourorfive levels of underground carparking would have meant not onlya majordemolitionjob to remove the existing thickbase­ ment raft, but also aphenomenal amount of monitoring and a very costlylegal undertaking — even assuming construction went exactlyto plan. Armed with thisknowledge, Oreo rethought and redesignedthe building’s lowerfloors, making use ofjust twobasementlevels and allowing a combination of commercial and carparking to extend up to the eighthlevel.Structuralloads at foundationlevel were of the order of600KPa-800KPa, but rather than providing a deep- piled solutionArup investigated whether itcould be designed as a piled raft system. These would be designed similar to those used in Frankfurt, where piles are designed purelyto limit settlement, rather than to carryloads. As alocaltwistto this approach,Ampproposed using
SUPPLEMENTARYREADING 303 singlediaphragm wallpanels asbarrettes. From a construction point of view this meant the original diaphragm wall could be left in place, the old raftshaved off, and a new raftcast on top ofit. Thenew raft wouldbe 2 m thickbelow the tower area, reducing to a thickness of 1.5 m elsewhere. This approach wouldproduce a much less expensive founda­ tion. Leszczynski realised this approach required investigation using 3D finite element analysisto determine whetherit would work as a true piled raftand also to determinehow the connectionbetween the barrettes and the raft affectedthe behaviour ofthefoundation. An accurate determination ofthe length ofthe barrettes was also needed. Leszczynski’s hunch. For Leszczynski, it was vital that the analysis accounted for soil-structure interaction and that a more sophisticated soil model thanM ohrCoulomb was used.Theapproach meantAmphadto commission a much more comprehensiveground investigation than istypicalin Poland, on thebasis thatthere wouldbelittlepoint in doing a complexfinite element analysisifit were not confident it had correctly identified the ground conditions. The investigation included eight boreholes and eight cone penetration tests, with shear-wave velocity measurements to determine strain ratios. By taking samples and reconstituting these at their insitu density, Arup was able to correlate the ground stiffness to its grading and density. This confirmed Leszczynski’s hunch supported by observed settlements in existing buildings in Warsaw that the ground was much stifferthan allowedforin conventional analysis. In profile, the ground at the site comprised the thick and ubiquitous blanket of made ground, present throughout Warsaw as an uncomfortable reminder of the war. Below this, the natural groundis made up oftwolayers ofboulder clay, the resultoftwo glaciations. This clay, says Leszczynski, is “a very good material, very stiff, not susceptible to swelling and has a high content ofgravel and boulders” . Theboulder clay horizons are underlain byavery dense interglacial gravel and sand and, below this, a stiffTertiary Clay, similar to London Clay at about 40 m. Amp used MIDAS
304I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей GTS finite element software. This indicated that the foundation barrettesdid not need to extendto thedeep clay and couldbe short­ ened from 20 mto 17.5 m. It also showed that apinned, ratherthan afixed, connection between the raftand thebarrettes wasbetterin terms ofbending moments, althoughthis created the need to “beefup” the steel in the raft locally The analysis also showed that, perhaps counter­ intuitively, the load is actually carriedby thebarrettes, resulting is very little strain at raft level. Leszczynski feels Arap’s design has certainlyledto abetterunderstanding oftheground andfoundation behaviour. Foundation work was carried outbycontractorInkom, which installed the 17.5 m long,0.8 mby2.8 m barrettesthrough slots cut in the foundation raft. Leszczynski was concerned that creating these slots and exposing the underside ofthe original raft could lead to a softening below it. As aprecaution, Inkom injected grout at lowpressurebelow the raft around the slot locations. In addition it prestressed thebarrettes bybase-grouting them, although this was primarily to mitigate against potential construction errors, rather than a necessarypart ofthedesign. Foundation work was complete when NCEI visited the site and the structure was three storeys above ground. Provided Poland’s residential market ridesthroughthe credit crunch,general contractor Besix shouldbe completing the projectbyautumn nextyear. (New Civil Engineer International, January, 2009) ^TEXT 7 DOWNTOWN by Adrian Greeman Birmingham’s latest development includes a 44 storey-tower with afive storeybasement. Bachy Soletancheisjust finishing the foundations. Birmingham, England haslong had a reputation as a windswept concretejungle, the resultofroadfocused re-developmentin the
SUP PLEMENTARY READING 305 1960s. But a wave ofnewdevelopmentismodernisingthe citycentre withfriendlier mixed use schemes. One ofthebiggestistransforming a bleak space close to the Snow Hillstation, the city’s second central railway station. For years the area has been mainly rough ground, used for carparking alongside a main road, with railwaylinesnearby and assorted 1960sconcrete multistorey carparks. Now steel frame blocks are rising on a three part site being developed by Ballymore for mixed use, with offices, retail space and hotel floors above. Largest will be a development with two towers on the square site atthe end, one ofthese afuture landmark with 44 floors, the city’s highest building. Landscaped space will alsobe over afive-storeybasement car park fillingthe whole 96,000 m 2 space. To create this large volume and tower foundations, groundwork specialist BachySoletanche hasbeen installing adeep contiguouspiled wall around the sitethissummer. In recent weeks, as the large excavationinsidegot underwayinside, ithasbeenback on site to install aline ofground anchors in the wall. “Thesearefortemporary supportofthewallduringthebasement construction,” explains contracts managerSteve Mallinson. “Once the concreted base slab and floors are in place they willprovide all the structural support needed andthe anchors willbe cutthrough.” The tendons will remain in theground afterwards. “We alsohad to do ten plunge columnsforthe site approach ramp within the main wall,” says Mallinson. These hefty steel H-section columns, surrounded by pea gravel inside their pile casings, are gradually being exposed again as the site excavation proceeds. Contractor PC Harrington is doing the excavation and base concreting at present. But until recently Bachy has unusually had the site to itself. “We were effectively a main contractor,” says Mallinson, “ installing security and site welfare, arranging spoil disposal and concrete deliveries.” Itwasa change, he says, not having to interleavebetween other work, though with two support cranes, two Bauer BG 22 piling rigs, spoil heaps, reinforcement deliveries and site accommodation to deal with, the site became full enough. As the 241 piles in the perimeter wall were installed he even had to block offtwo ofthree site entrances, which meant some careful logistics were needed.
306 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей For the 220 m length ofthe main wall, project design consultant WSP had opted for contiguous piles, “which isthe right choice,” saysMallinson, “because thegroundisdry andyoudon’t need any interlocking.” Pilesare 750 mm diameter. The wallwillholdback theground which comprises afew metres of fill, then a 3-5 m thick sand layer whichbecomes weathered sandstone furtherdown andgraduallymorecompetent rock. “ The bedrocklayer slopesfrom 2 m to 14 mdown acrossthe site andthe pilesmustbe up to 17.5 m deep,” says site engineerMathew Brown, “ though they average out a little less.” To get through this fairly soft ground should be relatively straightforward. Bachy hoped to work with continuous flightpiling mainly, whichisquick and economical. Butthere is always abut. On this site itwasobstaclesintheground, remnants ofthe 1960s, including various road underpasses and subways. “A lot of it was grubbed out in a preparatory contract,” says Brown. “ But there was some left where it would have caused undermining of the highway.” The obstacles were mainlyseveral metres down and up to 3 m thick. To get through meant using the full strength ofthe Bauer rigs in straight boring mode — the dual purpose rigs could be converted for such workin about24 hours and thendrovethrough the hard matenal with tungsten carbide boring heads. “We had site investigation data but did further probe piles at various locations aroundtheperimeterto work out what we coulddo withtheCFA and what wouldtake the harder casedbored work,” saysMallin­ son. Inthe end about 30% boredpiling was needed, somewhatless than Bachyhad estimated, which meantitcame out ahead. Butthere is often anotherbut. Thesandstone and sand caused difficulties withboth types ofpiling “because porous ground tends to suck the moisture out ofthe concrete,” saysMallinson. “That made itstifierand harder to getthepre-made reinforcement cages inafterthe augur was withdrawn.” Bachyswitched to a more fluid mix and a highly disciplined pile procedure where cages were positioned within a minute ofthe augurbeing withdrawn. For the ten top-down piles Bachy installed abasicbored pile with casing and then used its specialplunge column rig to achieve the 5 mm accuracy neededforpositioning theI section steel columns.
SUPPLEMENTARY READING 307 A steel frame sitting on the casingshad three sets of hydraulic rams forprecision adjustment ofthe central steel while it was fixed with around 5 m ofconcrete atthepilebase. Peagravelfillsthe casing. The 12 weeks’ schedule met, Bachyretiredfor a month while the excavation began, returning in late October to begin anchoring. Some 70 anchors go in, a row of one every three piles. Each is 15 m long and 178 mm diameter, driven by a Casagrande M6 articulating rig. Fivestrand reinforcementbundlesfrom Diwidag aregrouted into thebottom 6 m or so ofthe anchor which runs at a 45°inclineinto the sandstone. Thattoo hasgone to schedule and the site is now almost readyforthe main worksbycontractorAltius. The Snow Hill development as it will look. Snow Hilldevelopment includes 56,000 m2of office space, a five-star hotel and 332 luxury apartments in a 44-storey tower, five major new public spaces which — itishoped — will create a new core to Birmingham’s commercial heartland Kier Group is the main contractor with Arup heading up the mechanical and electrical engineering contract, whileAlan Baxter Associates isthe structures and highways consultant. Ballymore Properties is the developer ofthe Snow Hillproject. It has worked on 22 city centre projects in Liverpool, Luton, Bristol and London. In London’s Docklands, current schemes include Pan Peninsula, Ontario Tower and Leamouth Peninsula. (New Civil Engineer International, February, 2008) ^TEXT 8 OPEN PLAN SURGERY by Andrew Mylius Opening up thebasement ofStPancras Station’s Midland Grand Hotel has called for radical re-engineering ofits foundations. Getting miners, their excavation equipment and construction materials into the tight spacesbeneath the Midland Grand Hotel fronting London’s St Pancras Station was like playing sardines, says Claire Carr. She is overseeing a surgical operation to remove
308[ Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей wallsin the old hotelbasement to create a direct linkbetween King’s CrossSt Pancras Underground stationin front ofthe Midland Grand Hotel, and St Pancras International railway terminus, which is immediatelybehind it. “ Eurostar will start using the station in November. We’re creating easy through-access forpassengers movingbetween the London Underground and high speed trains,” says Carr. She is section managerforCORBER, a joint venture between Costain, Laing O’Rourke, Bachy Soletanche and Emcor Rail, which is carrying outthe rejuvenation ofStPancras station. Itisdoing the work forLondon & ContinentalRailways, owner and operator ofHigh Speed 1, formerly known as the Channel Tunnel Rail Link. Carrsaysthatto supportthe hotel’s seven storeys of neo-gothic brickwork, wallsin thebasement chambers were up to 1.5 m thick, carrying point loads of500 kN. The space was divided into four rooms, roughly7m square, two eitherside ofa 3 m wide corridor. Doors giving access to the corridor, and from the corridor into each of the rooms, were between 800 mm and 900 mm wide. “Spacewithin the chambers waslimited, and thedoorwaysformed extremelytightbottlenecks on movements ofpeople and materials,” Carrsays. Opening thebasement up to create spaceforfree-flowing passenger movementfollows a60-pomt method statement. “We’ve arrived at thepoint where we’ve got a large open plan areadotted withcolumns—we’vecome alongway,” Carrsummarises. Alongside working in confined spaces, one of CORBER’s key challenges was to limit settlement “Our work strategy has been governedbythe requirementto keep settlementto under5 mm,” saysCarr. Instrumentation hasbeen installed on the upperfloors ofthe hotel to keep tabs on thebuilding response to changesbeing earned outto itsfootings. Work started 17months ago with the excavation of3 m by2m pitsto locate the hotel coibelledbnckfoundations. These werefound 6mdown, beanng ontoLondonClay.Ateam ofminersemployed by Costain carried out the excavation work, using timber props and shonng to support the sides of the holes. “Because of the
SUPPLEMENTARYREADING 309 conditions m which we’re working, we’ve gone back to very traditional methods and materials,” Carr notes “Timber’s far easier to use than steel in tight spaceslike this.” Withfooting levels established,ground was taken down to the same level throughout the basement area. Powered wheelbarrows and a small conveyorwere usedto removespoil astwo mini-diggers toiled away. Next, 1mwide, 4 .5mdeep reinforced concrete strip foundations were cast either side of the walls to take temporary works loading. “We needed very substantial foundations to take propping forces when it came to opening up the walls,” Carr explains. Opening up the wallsinvolved taking cores at high level, wherethey metthe edgesofvaults making upthebasementjack arch ceiling. Subcontractor Shepley inserted I-section needles through theseholes supportingthem onproppedI-beams runningflush with and eitherside ofthe walls. “We were strictlyprohibitedfrom opening up more than25% of the wall at once, so we had to install the needle using a hit one, missthree, hitone pattern. Once we’d been around allthe walls once, we wentback anddidthesame again and again.” Grout was used to fill cavitiesin thebrickwork ofthe topmost section of wall, sandwichedbetween thelongitudinalI-beams. Thegrout alsoflooded the voidbetween the wall and the web and innerflanges ofthe I- beams, creating a composite steel-masonry-steel sandwich. Only when thegrout had achievedfulldesignstrengthwereprops supporting the I-beamsjacked imperceptibly, relieving the walls ofload. This enabled slots to be cut in the walls. Reinforced concrete saddles were cast, bridgingbetween the strip foundations, on which new cast iron columns werepositioned.With all ofthe columnsinplace it was finally possible to cut out the remaining brickwork. Floor levelbetween the stnp foundationswas raised to the same heightby placing mass concrete. (New Civil Engineer International, February, 2007)
310 Английскийлзыкдллстудентовстроительныхспециальностей ^ТЕХТ 9 BASEMENT BUILD UP by Jessica Rowson Chicago’s horizonisskyscraperheaven, but soon one building will stand head and shoulders abovethe rest.JessicaRowson reports from the Windy City. When built, the 150-storey Chicago Spire willbe 610 m tall. Compared to theproposed 54 m tallFreedom Tower on Ground Zero in New York and the currenttallestbuilding in the United States — the 110-storeySearstowerinChicago which stands442 m tall — this will be a real skyscraper among tall buildings. It is designedby Spanish engineerarchitect SatiagoCalatrava. N ot only willthe height makeitstand outfrom the crowd,but italsohas a ratherunusual shape asittwistsinto a spiral which soars skywards. The floorplate isbased on a circle but the edge ispinched into cantileverpoints at even spaces around the outside, giving itthe appearance of a wide toothed cog.The cantilevers willbe rotated to give the facade the appearance of a very elegant helterskelter. “ Itlooks complicated,but there’s high repetition which means lesscost,” says D. McLean vicepresident ofthe Spire’s structural consultant Thornton Tomasetti. “The [concrete] core remainsin the same position, but the floorplates appear to slowly rotate in plan with each change in floor elevation. However the columns and the innerfloorplates are repeated at each level and the edges ofthefloor slab rotate.” Allgreatthings must start somewhere and this project begins with some heavy duty ground work. Twenty, 3 m diameter rock caisson piles will support the building central circular core and there are seven outer columns at ground level withafurtherpair ofthe3 mdiameter rock caissonsbeneath each ofthese. The rock caisson piles are large diameter concrete pilesinstalled withapermanent casingtypicallyused when veryhighloads need to be supported. These huge piles pass through the eight-storey basement and socketinto thebedrockto an averagedepth of3 m. Workers have already installed all ofthe 3 m caisson piles as well as
SUPPLEMENTARY READING 311 smaller intermediate bell or under-reamed piles. These under reamed pilessupportthe columnsthat will in turn support floor slabsin the eight-storeybasement. Therearetwo typesofbasement column, both areformedby driving 25 m long, 910 mm diameter tubular casings into the ground. The bottom of these casings forms piles below lowest basement slab. Most are filled with reinforced concrete up to ground level. Where the loads aregreatest the casings are onlyfilled with reinforced concrete up to basement slab level. Steel drop-in columns are thenplaced on top ofthem to form supportsforthe basement floors. The casings are later removed before basement excavation workbegins. “ To construct the steel drop-in columns we terminatethe concrete caisson atthebottom basementlevel and leaveanemptyshaft,” saysMcLean. A steel column is hung into the shaftjust above the installed caisson. Thebaseplate area ofthe steel column is concreted in place and left to cure. Later the shaft isfilled with sand or weak slurry to prevent the clay collapsing when the steel casing is removed.” Itisimportantto preventtheground around the steel columns collapsing afterthe casings are removed,because thereis a risk that underground voids could make the areas around the columnsdangerousto work in. The basement willbe constructed top downfrom theground floor. The finished ground floor slab will brace the walls. The outriggersusually run through the core wallsleaving space forlifts, stairs and services. Butthe Spire’s circular shape and circular core meant thatthedesignershad to find adifferent solution. “ Normally cores are rectangular and the main structural elements can be installed through the core,” says McLean. “With a circular core one cannot do that asthediagonal elements intersect atthe core centre making itverydifficultto fitanything in the triangular spaces.” “Wedecided on a ring system around the core walls connected at two floorlevels, which would not interfere with the inner core layout. The ring elements are horizontal steeltrusses which encircle the core wall.” In addition, it was decided to include the outer column transfers within these outrigger systems. These outrigger/ transfer levels were situated at levels 35 to 40, 72 to 74,109 to 111and 142to 144 and designated as space forthe plant rooms.
312[английский язык длястудентовстроительныхспециальностей Thebuildingfloorsareframedin compositesteel. “We needed concrete for a robust core, but an all concrete construction would haveresulted in verylarge columnsin thelowerpart ofthebuilding,” saysMcLean. “Withsteel we can use smallercolumns.” McLean saysthe one veryimportant issue in composite construction isthe differential movement between the concrete core and the steel columns. Concrete shrinks and creeps over time whereas steel shortens underloading,but at a different rate. This is not such a problem with low rise buildings or buildings which are all steel or all concrete, as the columns and cores shrink atthe same rate. The core of the Spire isbeing constructed above its final elevation so that there is a slight fall in the level of the slab from the core outwards. As the concrete core shrinks, the floor level should approach aflatsurfaceThe mainbasement work hasyetto startbut tenders for a general contractor have been invited. When one is chosen the Spire will really start to motor. (New Civil Engineer Inter national, November, 2008) ^TEXT 10 BIRD'S NEST SUPERSTRUCTURE by Andrew Mylius As it nears completion China’s bird’s nest Olympic stadium is shouting for attention. Beijing’s architecturally flamboyant Olympic stadium is not universally admired. “The stadium bird’s nest motifis an insultto birds,” spluttered German structural engineering luminary Jorg Schlaich at a symposium in Beijing last month, oiganised bythe InternationalAssociation for Shell & Spatial Structures. “ It uses huge quantities of steel,” Schlaich complained, “far more than necessary to enclose 100,000 seats. It is a grossly inefficient structure.” W arming to his theme, Schlaich advised: “Good engineering should be about solving a problem as economically as possible, using the least possible materials. It should never be subjugated to art whatever art is.” That is a debate, of course, that Schlaich should have had with clientforthe stadium,
SUPPLEMENTARY READING 313 the Beijing Organising Committee for the 2008 Olympic Games (BOCOG), before it decided to build the structure now neanng completion. Thestadium has consumed ajaw dropping45,0001of steel but to stunning visual effect. Welding ofthefinal structural membersistaking place; theprecast concrete supports for the seating bowl have been installed, with seating and mechanical/electrical fit out following close behind. Beijing’s Olympicstadium isdueto openforbusinessthistime next year. Questions of “good engineering” aside, design and construction of the stadium have been remarkable challenges. Consultant Arup had the task ofturning an architectural conceptby Swiss architect Herzog & De Meuron into somethingbuildable. “Herzog & De Meuron put a lot of effort into making the structure unconventional,” said head ofArupSportJayPamshin 2004. “Columns are skewed offthevertical.There’s not a concourse with a straight edge. The whole effort has concentrated on creating an exciting space.” The stadium measures 230 m wideby 330 m long and 55 mhigh. Structurallyitiscomposed oftwo independent parts — the bowl, which is afairly conventional precast reinforced concrete structure, and the steel exteriorfacade and roof. The roofhas a “Pringle-like” geometry, denved bytaking a smallpatch from the insideface of a vast toroid. Atits edges, the roofflowsinto smooth comers, creating a seamless transition into the facade, which slopesinwards towardsits base at 14°from the vertical. Herzog& DeMeuron sketchedthefacade and roofas a random scribble, from which Arup had to establish a clear structural order. Thiswasachievedby disguising primary structural members amid a web of secondary steelwork.All members share the same section of1.5 m2.Thishasbeen so effectivethat isdifficult to seethatthereis a structuralsystem that hasbeen repeated around the stadium perimeter. Roofandfacade areinterconnected.Thestadium performslike a collection ofgiant portalframes. Twenty-fourperimeter columns consist oftwoouter chords and a singleinner chord — allprimary members. Theserisefrom a singlepoint, diverging astheygo and wrap around the comerbetween facade and roofto continue across the roof. At the centre ofthe roofthere is an elliptical opening
314|_Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей ringed by а 10 m deep truss. Each primary member strikes a tangent off the ellipse and, on reaching the far side of the roof, wraps around the comer, returning to the ground via another column. Secondary steelwork provides tnangulation between the main structural elements. Stairs threaded between the inner and outer chords of the columns provide further bracing up to sixth-floor level.Arupdirector MichaelKwok says that inprimary members subjected to the highest loads steel thickness is up to 100 mm. Chinese main contractors Urban Construction and Citic subcontracted fabrication ofthe complex curvedbox sections making up the stadium multiple trusses to ship builders in Shanghai and Zheianjang. “ China has some ofthebiggest shipyardsin the world. The hulls of ships are curved in every dimension, so this project was not especially difficultfor them ,” says Kwok. Sections were transported to Beijingbyroadin 12 m to 15m lengthsand assembled into larger units weighing up to 60 t before being lifted into position. Allconnections are welded. Kwok saysthe pace ofconstruction hasbeenblistering. Ground breaking wasinDecember2003.Boredpilefoundations wereinstalled through 2004 — each column isfounded on 30 to 40 piles of800 mm to 1,000mmdiameterand20mto40 mlong,dependingon ground conditions. Columns are implanted in the high strength concrete pile caps and thebox sectionshavebeen concrete filledto several metres aboveground level, creating monolithic connections with theground.Thisis necessary to helpcope with horizontalforces fromwind, crowd dynamic and seismicloading, saysKwok. Erection of the first column took about a month, he recalls. “ Once the contractors hadbeen throughthelearningprocess on thefirst column, though, things progressed rapidly.” Massive temporaryprops were required to support each column and the central nng truss. Onlywhen all ofthe columns hadbeen pieced together was the interlinking grid of primary members installed to support the nng truss. “ The contractors wanted to weld in the secondary members as they wentbefore de-dropping. “We did some uigent re-analysis and reached a compromise. Some of the secondary members went inbeforede-propping, whichhappened
SUPPLEMENTARY READING iii! in September, and they’re putting in the last of the secondary members now.” Removal ofthetemporaryprops wastelevised —it was a three day operation — capturing on camera Kwok’s relief thatthe roofbehaved as expected. “ Deformation was270 mm atthe centre ofthe roof, more or less as we’dpredicted.” To cope withthe stresses resultingfrom thedeflection, secondary members’plate thickness wasincreasedlocallyand diaphragms were added to brace them internally. Kwok admits that China’s constructionboom meantthat steel and skilledfabricators werein equally short supply at times. Things were very tight in terms of delivery against schedule attimes. That’s had someimpact on cost but the project’s stillwithin itsYuan 3.2bn ($4084M)budget.” (New Civil Engineer International, January, 2007) ^TEXT 11 CASTLES IN THE SKY: HOW NEW YORK CITY'S COLOSSAL SKYSCRAPERS WERE CONSTRUCTED Highabovethe streets ofManhattan, the teams ofriveters worked to a set routine. As an enormous crane hoisted each steel beam into placeon thegrowingEmpireState Building, a workman called the “heater” warmed each nvetin aportablefurnace until itglowed cherry-red, removed it with tongs and tossed it to a “catcher”, perched precariouslyon the very edgeofnothing. Usuallyhe caught itin his “catching can”, but sometimeshe missed.Using tongs, the catcher knocked off the cinders and lodged the rivet in the prepared hole. Anotherworkmate helditfirmlywith the aid of a heavy steel bar, while a third smashed the rivet into place with a compressed airhammer. It took 60 000 tons of steel to build the Empire State. The beamsandgirders were castinPittsburgh, and withinaday ortwo of being made, each numbered piece had been transported to Manhattan, hoisted into position and riveted into place. There was little storage space available on site, so elaborate charts and timetables were used to monitorprogress and to ensure that deliveries keptprecise pace with the erectors’and riveters’schedules.
316 [Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей Careful organisation builds a giant. The charts listed every lorrydue to arrive, what it would carry, who would be responsible for it and where it ought to go. Each beam washoisted by crane to the appropriate floor, then transported to wherever it was required on a miniature railway system. This methodical approach worked exceptionallywell and on occasions thebuilding roseby more than a storey in a single day. The EmpireState 102 storeys werefinishedin record time. It tookjust six months to complete the 381 m buildinginstead ofthe anticipated 18 months, featthat set new standards ofefficiencyfor the constructionindustry.Butitwas 1931,in the earlyyearsofthe Great Depression, and much ofthe space remained unlet.Thebuilding was dubbed “The Empire State Building” . It had cost $24 million to construct, which was cheap atthe time, but forthe firstfew years a major source ofincome usedbythedeveloperto payproperty taxes was ticket salesfor the observatories on the 86th and 102nd floors. From the top on a clearday, itispossible to see 80 km away. A skyscraper m ade o fsteel. The steel skeleton of the riveted structure means that it is immensely strong — thebuilding swaysless than 6 mm on the 85th floor in a strong wind. In July 1945 an off-course US Air Force bomber, travelling at a speed of400 km/h infog and rain, crashed into the 78th and 79th floors. The three man crew and 11people in the building were killed,but the structure suffered no permanent damage. Survivors recall that the building simply rocked a couple oftimes. Manhattan’s distinctive skylinestarted to take shape when steel began to be used for tall buildings. Earlier buildings had been made from a vanety of materials, including stone, brick, wood and cast iron But a masonrybuilding tallerthan about ten storeys would have required supporting walls so thick at the base that there would be hardly any floorspace on the ground floor and, before lifts were invented, building height was limited to the number of steps people were prepared to climb. One of Manhattan’s most striking earlyskyscrapers, builtbetween 1901 and 1903 was Flatiron building. It owes its unique shape to the narrow tnangular site it occupiesatthejunction ofBroadway and 5thAvenue at 23rd Street.
SUPPLEMENTARY READING 317 Twenty storeys high, its riveted steel frame is clad in French Renaissance-style stonework. Taller and taller. The Flatiron may alsohavebeen the firstbuilding to create strange aerodynamic effects in the surrounding streets. Even today, Manhattan’s tall buildings create unusual wind currents, causing snowflakesto float upwards. Beforelong, the Flatiron wasdwarfed byother skyscrapers, including theW oolworlh Building, completed in 1913. The architect, Cass Gilbert, chose the Gothic style for the 60-storey tower. The structure itself was made from steel and the extenor completely clad in terracotta. It could house 14000 workers, servicedby 19lifts and 2800 telephones — an astonishing numberfor the time. When thebuilding wasfinished it won immediate praise from the public — but some architectural purists were aghast, their sensibilities offended by Gilbert’s use of Gothic detail purely for decorative effect, rather than for structural purposes. This was contrary to the modernist stricture that “form should follow function” . (Reader’s Digest: How Was It Done 9 The Story o f Human Ingenuity Through the Ages, 2000) ^TEXT 12 HONG KONG — BASTION OF BAMBOO SCAFFOLDING by Muthukaruppan Ramanathan HongKong’sskylineisdominatedbysomeofthe world's tallest buildings. Nevertheless, the city still usesbamboo scaffolding for much ofits construction work — a traditional skill passed down over 5000 years. Bamboo is sustainable, lightweight and cheap and, as long asitremainsfairlydry, a good construction material with significant mechanical properties. Researchers, engineers, environmentalists andbureaucratshavetaken anincreasing interest in the craft, such that regulations and practice continue to be improved and refined. However, to alleviate remaining design and safety concerns a structuraldesign code is needed.
318I Английскийлзыкдлистудентовстроительныхспециальностей Hong Kong continuesits long-standing tradition ofusingbamboo scaffolding for new construction, renovation, repair work and signage. The city stands alone from the rest of the world in recognizing the sustainability ofbamboo over steel and aluminium and hasprogressively raised training and safety standards ofbamboo scaffolders. Bamboo scaffolding had previouslybeen used in many parts of southeast Asia and mainland China but has mostly now been replacedby metal scaffolding. Except, that is, in Hong Kong, home to five ofthe world’s 25 tallestbuildings. Itsbamboo scaffolders remain unperturbed by the ever-increasing heights at which they weave theirbamboo webs. Working with giant grass. According to Chinese legend the craft dates back 5000 years, whenYau Chao-Shi, a mythological character whose birthday is stillcelebrated, taughthispeople how to construct nest-likebamboo shelters in trees. Bamboogrows up to 30 m tall. It reaches its full height in one year and persists for several years without growing taller or wider, making it technically a grass rather than a tree. It is nevertheless the world’s fastest growing woody plant and, as such, isparticularly usefulfor stabilising nveibanks and preventing slope erosion. Bamboo stems can be harvested after three years and are self-renewing, with new shootsproducedfrom the roots without replanting. The circular hollow stems make light and, when seasoned, tough constructionpoles that can be used without further processing or finishing. Some 1250 species and 150 traditional applications havebeen identified forbamboo. Millionsofpeople live in houses made of bamboo inparts ofcentral and north America andAsia. Itprovides floor decking, wall panels, rafters, ceilings, roofs, doors and windows. Bamboo is also usedforbuilding fencesand lighttraffic bndgesin south Asia. Traces ofbamboo scaffolding are stillseenin south China, butin Hong Kongitcontinuesto be extensivelyused, researched and improved. The traditional art ofbamboo scaffolding hasbeen passed on from one generation to the next with little written information. However, with increasing interest from the construction industry, educationalinstitutions, statutory departments and promoters of
SUPPLEMENTARY READINGJ 319 sustainable resources, therehasbeen a steadygrowth inthe number of written regulations, guidelines, codes, conferences and publica­ tions on the subject. The focus in Hong Kong is on the locally availablebambootypes, namelykaojue and maojue, the nominal external diameters of which at base are 40 mm and 75 mm respectively. The Code ofPracticeforScaffolding Safely wasfirst published in 1995bytheHong Kong LabourDepartment. Thecodeprovided practicalguidelines to the construction and maintenance ofboth bamboo and m etal scaffolds. It gave broad material specification and minimum requirementsforthe configuration ofcommonlyused scaffold types. Loads on working platforms supported by the scaffolds, however, were provided only for metal scaffolds. Aseparate codeforbamboos, entitledCode ofPracticeforBamboo Scaffolding Safety, was published in 2001. This included the minimum imposedloads on workingplatforms and aperformance specification. In 2006, the Hong Kong Buildings Department published Guidelines on thedesignand construction ofbamboo scaffoldsto supplementthe LabourDepartment code. Theguidelinesprovide recommended practice forthe design, erection, maintenance and dismantling ofbamboo scaffolds. Ifscaffoldlayouts need to deviate from the guidelines, the Buildings Department recommends a performance-baseddesignbyacorporate civil or structural member ofthe Hong Kong Institution ofEngineers. Aftergauging industry reaction, the BuildingsDepartment will considerpublishing a code ofpractice in thefuture. Forms o f bamb oo scaffolding. Bamboo scaffoldingisusedinitsvariousforms according to the utility. Double-layeredbamboo scaffolds are most commonlyused innewconstruction and alsoin major renovation. External works such as rendering, painting, wall tiles and plumbing are carried out from a continuous working platform laid between the inner and outer scaffolds. The innerlayeris erected at about 200 mm from thebuilding edge, andtheouterlayerat about600 mmfrom the inner layer. There are many variations to form, articulation, types ofbamboos and spacingbased on specific site requirements and the craftsmen’s training and preference.
320 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей Forthe outerlayer, large-diameter (75mm) maojuepoles are used asthe main verticalposts spaced at about 1— 3 m centres. They rest on firm ground at ground level and on steel brackets securely fixed to the structural members ofthe building at higher levels. Buildings Department guidelines require these steel brackets to be provided at 15m verticalintervals or every fifthfloor. Each post should rest on one steelbracket, and the horizontal spacing between the brackets should not exceed 1—3 m. Smaller40 mm diameter kaojue poles are fixed as standards (uprights) between each pairofmaojueposts. The posts and standards are connected by mao jue ledgers (horizontals), with a vertical spacing of about 600-750 mm. The scaffolders sit and put their leg over the ledgers and fix the tier above it. The upright standards and posts are alsolapped by them sitting in this position. The 600-750 mm gap spacing isjust convenient working distance which is the height between the scaffolder’ship and shoulder. This way, thejoints and members are load-tested during the erection stage itselfby the scaffolder’s own weight. Cross-biacmg isprovidedby usingkaojuepolesinclined at an angle of45-60°. Fortheinnerlayer, kaojuepoles are used formain posts and ledgers; the intermediate standards are generally not necessary.The main posts ofboth layers are supported bythe same set oftriangular steelbrackets. Scaffolds are tied to buildings using6 mm diameter horizontal mild-steel wires at vertical and horizontal spacings not exceeding 6.6 m and 3 m respectively.These are referred to as “putlogs” though, unlike putlogsin metal scaffolding systems, which transmit vertical platform loads into the building wall, putlogs in bamboo scaffolding provide lateral restraint and wind resistance. They are provided at closer spacing higher up, where wind forces can be significant. Workingplatformsfor carrying out external works are normally vertically spaced at2m. The maximum imposedload on working platformsvariesbetween 0—75 kPa (very lightduty) to 3 kPa (very heavyduty)inthe LabourDepartment’s code. The code requires that no morethantwo workingplatformsintheformercase and no more than one workingplatform in the latter case shouldbe in use in anybay, thatisthe spacebetween two adjacent standards along
SUPPLEMENTARY READING 321 the face of the scaffold. In the double-layered system, kao jue transom, poles spanning between the ledgers are used to support the workingplatforms, and are thereforeprovided at every platform level and witha maximum horizontal spacing ofabout 15-2 4 m. Single-layered bamboo scaffolding isgenerally used to provide protective cover to renovation works on existing buildings where working platforms are not necessary. Itis also used for some new construction, for example where external curtain glass walls are designed to beinstalled aslargepanels. Such scaffolds are also used in demolition, where all demolition works are carried out from inside the building including removal of external features. It is mandatory to fit tarpaulin sheets to contain demolition dust and debris, but these need to be removed during typhoons. Fixed external ratherthan internal ledgers facilitate the removal oftarpaulins. However, single-layered scaffolds are less safe than double- layered scaffolds and usageisdiscouraged.They are not included in eitherthe LabourDepartment’s code orthe Buildings Department guidelines. For minor repair works, including external plumbing, air-conditioning unit replacements and concrete or rendering repair, truss-outbamboo scaffolds are commonly used.Thisislight- duty, short-duration work and small-diameter kaojue poles are used. The standards, ledgers and raking poles are all supported by triangular steel brackets, which in turn are securely fixed to the structural elements ofthe building Putlog ties restrain the top of the standards. Bamboo scaffolding is also used to erect many of the large cantilevered advertising signs frequently seen over Chinese streets In Hong Kong, the maximum allowedlength to heightratio is4:3 and the scaffold shouldbe erected in a manner not to obstructthe traffic flow below. Such scaffolds are usually supported by steel wires orhang-poles securely fixed to the structural elements ofthe building.The lowerlevelis usuallydecked out with woodenplanks to act as a working platform. Lashing connections. Joints in bamboo construction have always been tricky. The poles are neither perfectly straight nor round, they have nodes at irregular spacings and their thickness varies. Despite such Зак 312
'322 I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей limitations, practitionershave developed many connection details over the years. Lashing poles with soakedbamboo stnps was the preferred methodfor a longtime, butthe stnpsdecayed and needed constant attention and replacement. By the late 1970s, nylon stnps had replaced bamboo strips. The new stnps made erection faster and they also lasted longer, but connectionsstilltended to weaken overtimedue to weathenng. Thisledto Hong Kong researchersspecifying engineered connections through experimental investigation. The recommended value for basic characteristic resistance for each lashing is 1.1 kN with a partial safety factor of 1.1 -1 .25 . The nylonstnps are well-specified, with a minimum ultimate strength of0.5 kN, a width of5.5 — 6mm and a thickness of0.85 — 1mm. The overlap oftwo lashedbamboo poles shouldbe 1.5 - 2 m, and the distance between the lashings should not be greater than300 mm. Othermaterials such asputlogs, anchorbolts and steelbrackets are specified in the BuildingsDepartmentguidelines. The established specificationsforbamboo poles, however, were giveninthe Labour Department’s earlier codes. Thepoles shouldbe3-5 yearsold and air-dried in verticalpositions underindoor conditions for at least 3 months before use; they should be free from cracks, irregular knots and worm-eaten spots. Despite bamboo and lashing materials having been specified, the effort ofcodifying the design data is still ongoing. Engineering characteristics. One ofthe disadvantagesindesigningbamboo structures isthe lack ofstructural designdata and established mechanicalproperties. Building codes overtheglobehaveyetto embracebamboo, though a draft code onbamboo structural design is under review. Basic mechanicalpropertieshavebeen dealt withby many authorsbut, unlike timber, bambooproperties do not relate to speciesbecause ofthe dependency on otherfactors such asgeographicallocation and age. Morerecent research onbamboo scaffolding carried out at Hong Kong PolytechnicUniversitywith the support ofthe International Network forBamboo and Rattan hasthusconcentrated on thelocally
SUPPLEMENTARY READING 323 availablekaojue and maojue varieties. The studiesindicated that despite large variations in diameter, wall thickness and moisture content, representative values of mechanical properties could be arrived at. Two failure modes, namelyend bearing and splitting, were identified in compression tests. End-bearing failures were mainlydue to high moisture content. Forbending tests, splitting and local crushing wereidentified as reasonsforfailure Based on a systematic experimental investigation on column- buckling behaviour ofbamboo members, researchers found that load reduction due to columnbuckling issignificantand accordingly developed alimit-state designmethod.Twofailure modes, namely overall buckling and localbuckling, were identified respectivelyin mao jue(long column-wet) andkaojue(short column-wet) members inmost ofthe cases. The engineenng charactenstics ofstructuralbamboos are similar to those oftimber and codification along similar lines to timber should be the next logical step. If the Hong Kong Buildings Department publishes a code ofpractice forbamboo scaffold asit hassuggested, thiswould lead to promotion and wider acceptance ofbamboo as abuilding material worldwide. Training a nd safety. In the past, the skills required for erecting bamboo scaffolding were taughtby a master scaffolderthrough a traditional apprentice system that would lastfor3years. However, apprentices can now pick up the skill within a year through on-job training or by attending a Construction Industry Training Authority training course. After working in industry for at least 4 years, a scaffolder can take the CITA trade test, which consists of a 0.5 h written examination followedbya 6 hpracticaltest in which the candidate is required to: - inspect an erected scaffold and rectifythe defects; - dismantle the scaffold safely; - re-erect the scaffold. In 2006, 268 candidates applied for the test and 62% passed. Apartfrom the extent ofworkcompleted andquality ofworkmanship, candidates are also assessed on their safety-consciousness. 11*
324I Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей All scaffolders in Hong Kong are required to wear safety harnesses, fall arrestors and independent lifelines. Scaffolds must alsobeinspected byacompetentperson — a CITAtrade test holder with at least 10years’experience — every2weeks and more often during tropical cyclones and strong monsoons. The main contractor’s full-time supervisor should alsoinspectthe integrity of the scaffolds regularlyand record findingsin stipulated forms. Despitethetraining and skillofHong Kong’sbamboo scaffolders and the government’s associated code and guidelines, serious accidents continue to occur, mostlyin truss-outbamboo scaffolds Theoverall accident rate in Hong Kong’s construction industry in the past few years is around 60 for every 1000 workers. A total of 3835accident cases were recordedin 2004, 3548 in 2005 and 3129 (projected) in 2006. The numbers offatal accidents during these years are 17, 25 and 17 respectively. Repair and maintenance projects account forthe majorityofthe accidents. Nearlyhalfofthe fatal accidents are grouped under “fall of person from height” involving truss-outbamboo scaffolds, unfenced edges, ladders and so on. Many ofthe accidents in truss-outbamboo scaffoldshave resulted from failures ofthe supportbracket anchorbolts. The difficultyin fixing the anchorbolts from inside the building iscited as a major cause. Inadequacy ofsecurefixtures oflifelinesto anchoragepoints has also been noted in many cases. Industry, institutions and government departments are working together in addressing the problem . Metal versus bamboo. Unlike metal scaffoldpoles, bamboo polesdo not need oiling, painting or covered storage. They are much lighter and easier to handle, leading to fast erection: one worker can erect 75-100 m2 ofdouble-layeredbamboo scaffolding aday, some 6-8 timesfaster than for a similar metal scaffold.Also, the cost ofbamboo poles isonlyabout6% ofthe cost ofsteelpoles. Bamboo scaffolds aregenerallysplitinto 15 m tall frames with those above ground level supported by steel brackets fixed to the main structure. Theheavier weightofmetal scaffolding meansthat verticalloads are usuallytaken allthe waydown to thebase. Thisis
SUPPLEMENTARY READING 325 workable for medium-rise buildingsbut for a multi-storeybuilding of, say, 124 m height, itisestimated that standards willbe required in groups of three at base with double at intermediate levels. Intermediate steel brackets, ifdesigned, would alsobe massive. In HongKong, wherehigh-risebuildings are a norm and many urban sites areboundedbybusy streets, shopping arcades and pedestrian bridges, treble and double metal scaffolds would not be practical Bamboo also has a much lower carbon footprint than metal. For Hong Kong it iscultivated in the neighbouring Guangxi province inabundance, andthen transported to Hong Kong along the Pearl River simply by lashing the poles together and floating them downstream. Depending on the type ofscaffolding,bamboopoles can be reusedthree to fivetimes. A city of oldand new. Hong Kongisaforward-looking citybut one which also values itstraditions and customs. For example, century-old tramcarspass slowlythroughthe heart ofthe central district while state-of-the-art mass-transittrains speedthrough tunnelsbelow and traditionaldim- sum restaurants sit alongside the latest fast-food outlets. (New Civil Engineer International, March, 2009)
TAPESCRIPTS • TAP ESCRIPT 1A BUILDINGS: FIRST IMPRESSIONS What makes the look ofBritish towns and citiesdistinctive? The most striking feature isthe lack ofblocks offlats People preferto live in individual houses — units with their own front doors and sometimesgardens Perhaps thissays something aboutthe national character; a love of privacy and a lack of interest in the wider community. There is a proverb: “An Englishman’s home is his castle” . Whateverthe deeper reasonsforit, the resultisthat British towns and cities are full oftwo orthree-storey houses. Onlyin the 1950sand -60s councils started building tall blocks offlats in the American style;butthese havebeen very unpopular, and the cheaper ones are now beingdemolished. Anotherdistinctive feature ofBritishbuildingsisthe use ofbrick. Some of the oldest monuments, like Hampton Court Prlace or Queens’ College, Cambridge, are made ofbrick. It remains the favourite materialfornew housestoday.While the rest ofthe world prefers concrete, for some reason the British taste isforbrick, at least in smaller buildings. • TAP ESCRIPT I B SOME TRENDS IN THE HISTORY OF BUILDING Human shelters were at firstvery simple and perhaps lasted only a few days or months. Over time, however, even temporary structures evolved into such highly refined forms as the igloo. Graduallymore durable structures began to appear, particularly after
TAPESCRIPTS 327 the advent of agriculture, when peoplebegan to stayin one place forlong periods. The first shelters were dwellings, but later other functions, such asfood storage and ceremony, were housedin sep­ arate buildings. Some structuresbegan to have symbolic as well as functional value, marking the beginning ofthe distinction between architecture and building. The history ofbuilding ismarked byanumber oftrends. One is the increasing durability of the materials used. Early building materials were perishable, such as leaves, and branches. Later, more durable natural materials — such as clay, stone, and timber — and,finally, synthetic materials — such asbrick, concrete, metals, and plastics — were used.Anotheris aquest forbuildings of ever greaterheight and span; this was made possiblebythe development of stronger materials and by knowledge ofhow materialsbehave and how to exploitthem to greater advantage. A third majortrend involves the degree of control exercised over the interior environment of buildings: increasingly precise regulation of air temperature, light and soundlevels, humidity, odours, air speed, and otherfactorsthat affect human comforthasbeenpossible. Yet anothertrend isthe change in energy availableto the construction process, starting withhuman muscle power and developing toward the powerful machinery used today. • TA PESCRIPT 2A THE FATHER OF THE AMERICAN SKYSCRAPER William Le BaronJenney (1832-1907)wasanAmerican civil engineerand architect whobecame known as the Father ofthe American skyscraper. Jenney wasbom inFairhaven, Massachusetts on September 25, 1832. Jenney first began his formal education at the Lawrence Scientific school at Harvard in 1853,but transferred to Paris to get an education in engineering and architecture. He graduated in 1856, one year after his classmate, Gustave Eiffel, the designerofthe EiffelTower. In 1861,he returned to the US to join the Union Army as an engineerin the CivilWar. Afterthe war, in 1867, Jenney moved to Chicago, Illinois and began his
328IАнглийскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей own architectural office, which specialized in commercialbuildings and urban planning. In 1998, Jenney was ranked number 89 in the book “1,000 Years, 1,000 People. Ranking the Men and Women Who Shaped the Millennium” . Jenney is best known for designing the ten- storey Home Insurance BuildinginChicago. Thebuilding wasthe first fully metal-frame skyscraper, and is considered the first skyscraper. It was built from 1884 to 1885, enlarged in 1891, and demolished in 1931. In his designs, he used metal columns and beams, instead ofstone and brickto support the building’s upper levels. The steel needed to support the Home Insurance Building weighed onlyone-third as m uch as a ten-storeybuilding made of heavy masonry. Using this method, the weightofthebuilding was reduced, thus allowing the possibility to construct even taller structures. Later, he solved the problem offireproofconstruction for tall buildings by using masonry, iron, and terracotta flooring and partitions. He displayed his system in the Letter Building, also builtin Chicagobetween the years 1889and 1891. • TA PESCRIPT 2B NIKOLAI V. NIKITIN Nikolai Vasilyevich Nikitin was a construction engineer and structural designer of the Soviet Union, best known for his monumental structures. Nikitin wasborn in Tobolsk, Siberia in 1907 to the family of a typographical engineer. In 1930, Nikitin graduated from the Tom sk Technological Institute with training in construction. In 1932, he designed the tram station ofNovosibirsk. By 1937, hewasliving and workingin Moscow. He turned his attention to calculations and design offoundations and supporting structures. In 1957 he was appointed chiefdesigner ofMosproekt Institute for the Planning of Housing and Civil Engineering Construction in the City ofMoscow. Nikitin died on 3 March 1973 His selected works are Moscow State University’s 240 m high mainbuilding (atthe time ofitsconstruction itwasthe tallestbuilding
TAPESCRIPTS 3 2 9 in Europe, built from 1949to 1953); LuzhnikiStadium, colossal 85- meter statue on the Mamayev Kurgan heights overlooking Volgograd, “The Motherland Calls” and many others. AmongNikitin’s works — theOstankinoTower — hasgotthe most fame. Standing 540 metres tall, it is a television and radio tower in Moscow. Itis named afterthe Ostankinodistrict ofMoscow in which it is located. Its construction began in 1963 and was completed in 1967.The tower wasthe first free-standing structure to exceed 500 m in height. It surpassed the Empire State Building to become the tallest free-standing structure in the world. The Ostankino Tower has remained the tallest free-standing structure in Europe for 42 years. • TA PESCRIPT ЗА CONSTRUCTION C AREERS There are many routes to the different careers within the construction industry which varyby country. However, there are three main tiers ofcareersbased on educationalbackground which are common internationally: unskilled and semi-skilled — general site labour with little or no construction qualifications; skilled — on -site managers who possess extensive knowledgeand experience in their craft or profession; technical and management — personnel with the greatest educational qualifications, usually graduate degrees, trained to design, manage and instruct the construction process. Skilled occupations in the UK require further education qualifications, often in vocational subject areas. These qualifications are either obtaineddirectlyafterthe completion ofcompulsory education or through “on thejob” apprenticeship training. In the UK, 8500 construction-related apprenticeships were commenced in 2007. Technical and specialised occupations require more training as a greater technical knowledge is required. The professions, like a civil engineer, a building services engineer, a project manager, a quantity surveyor structural engineerand others hold more legal responsibility.
330IАнглийский язык для студентов строительных специальностей • TAPESCRIPT ЗВ CONSTRUCTION ENG INEERS Construction engineers engage in the design of temporary structures, quality assurance and quality control,building and site layout surveys, on site material testing, concrete mix design, cost estimating, planning and scheduling, safety engineering, matenals procurement, and cost engineering andbudgeting. To complete projects construction engineers relyon plans and specifications created by architects, engineers and other constructors. During most ofthe 20th century structures havebeen first designed then engineering staff ensure it isbuilt to plans and specificationsbytesting and overseeing the construction. Previous to the20th century and more commonlysincethestart ofthe21st century structures are designed andbuiltin combination, allowing forsite considerations and construction methods to influence the design process. Keeping a workplace safe is a key to having a successful construction company. Itisthe construction engineer’sjob to make sure that everythingisconducted correctly. Construction engineers are alsoinvolved heavilywiththe constructionschedule anddocument control as well asbudget and cost control.Their role on site isto provide construction information, including repairs, requests for information, change orders and payment applications. Construction engineers should have strong understanding for math and science, but many other skills are required, including cntical thinking, listening, learning, problem solving, monitoring and decision making. Construction engineers have to be able to think about all aspects ofa problem and listen to others’ ideas so thatthey can leam everything about a projectbefore itbegins. They must maintain project control oflabour and equipment for safety, to ensure the project is on schedule and monitor quality control. When a problem occurs it is the construction engineer who will create and enact a solution
TAPESCRIPTS 331 • TAP ESCRIPT 4A BUILDING In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word buildingmay referto one ofthe following: any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or an act of construction. Buildings come in a wide amount of shapes and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a wide number offactors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, to land prices, ground conditions, specific uses and aesthetic reasons. Buildings serve several needs ofsociety — pnmanly as shelter from weather and as general living space, to provide privacy, to store belongings and to live and work. Residentialbuildings are calledhouses/homes, thoughbuildings containing large numbers ofseparate dwelling unitsare often called apartment buildings/blocks to differentiate them from the more “individual”house. Buildingtypesmay rangefrom one-room wood- framed, masonry, or adobedwellingsto multi-milliondollarhigh- risebuildings able to house thousands ofpeople. Increasing settlement density inbuildings and closerdistances between buildings is usually a response to high ground prices resulting from manypeople wanting to live close to work or similar attractors. A multistoreyedbuilding isa building that has multiple floorsabove ground in the building. Multi-storeybuildings aim to increase the area ofthe building without increasing the area ofthe land thebuildingisbuilt on, hence savingland and, in most cases, money. • TAPESCRIPT 4B SKYSCRAPERS A building many storeys high wasfirst called a skyscraperin the 1880sin the United States. They were developed in the lastpart of the 19th century as a resultoftechnological advancement and the social conditions at that time. They are now often referred to as
332 Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей high-risebuildings. The city ofNew York set the skyscraperpattern. Becausethegroundbeneath the citystreetsis rock,itissolid enough to take the heaviest loads without subsiding as softer earth would do, and therefore it is well suited to bearing the weight of tall buildings. Architects and civil engineers all over the United States were experimenting, especially with steel which was much lighterthan iron. These tall buildings were required so that millions ofpeople mightbe able to live and work in a comparatively small area. If skyscrapers are built the population of a whole town can live on quite a smallplot ofland. Thisis useful where land is expensive. Skyscrapers have certain disadvantages. Ifthey are built in a street ofordinary width, where the peoplewho workin them come pouring out at the end ofthe day, the street willbe overcrowded. Moreover, a skyscraper throws a long shadow, thereby keeping the sun from agreat many peopleat certainhours. Two skyscrapers built nearone another wouldbe aptto trap the fumes ofpetrol in the spacebetween them. To overcome these difficulties a scheme called zoning was introduced in the United States in the 1930s, whereby skyscrapers had to be set a certain distance from other buildings, depending on their height. Modern skyscrapers are usuallybuilt with open spaces, pedestrian precincts, or shopping centres at street levels to make the surroundings more attractive. • TA PESCRIPT 5A ROMAN CONCRETE During the Roman Empire, Roman concrete was made from quicklime, pozzolana, and an aggregate ofpumice. Concrete, as the Romansknewit, was in effect a new and revolutionary material. Laid in the shape ofarches, vaults and domes, itquicklyhardened into a rigidmass, free from many ofthe internalthrusts and strains which trouble the builders ofsimilar structures in stone orbrick. Modem structural concrete differsfrom Roman concrete in two important details. First, its mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous, allowing it to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate,
TAPESCRIPTS 3 3 3 which, in Roman practice, often consisted of rubble. Second, integral reinforcing steel gives modern concrete assemblies great strength in tension, whereas Roman concrete could depend only upon the strength ofthe concrete bonding to resist tension. Thewidespread use of concrete in many Roman structures has ensured that many survive to the present day.The BathsofCaracalla in Rome arejust one example ofthe longevity of concrete, which allowed the Romans to build this and similar structures acrossthe Roman Empire. Many Roman aqueducts and Roman bridges have masonry cladding to a concrete core, a technique they used in structures such as the Pantheon, the dome ofwhichis concrete The secret ofconcrete was lostfor 13 centuries until 1756, when the Bntish engineerJohn Smeaton pioneered the use ofhydraulic lime in concrete, using pebbles and powdered brick as aggregate. Portland cement was first used in concrete in the early 1840s. • TAPESCRIPT 5B FROM THE HISTORY OF BRICKMAKING Bricks were first used forbuilding in the Middle East. More than 6,000 years ago the Sumerian people livingin the valley ofthe Tigris and Euphrates riversdiscovered that the muddy claydeposited bythe two rivers wasidealforbuilding. The clay was mixed with water and straw and pressedinto rectangular moulds. The bricks were thenturned out ofthe moulds andleftto dryin the sun. Sun- dried bricks such as these, known as abode after the clay from which they are made, are still used forbuilding in warm, dry regions throughout Africa and South America. Adobe is cheap and can last for centuries. The next development in the history ofbrickmaking came around 4,000yearsago when the brickkiln wasinvented in the valley ofthe Tigris and Euphrates. Brickmakers found that ifbricks were fired after theyhad been dried in the sun, they were harder andbetter able to withstand damp. The earliest type ofkiln was a beehive­ shaped mound ofdriedbricks with arches atthebottom in which the fires could be lit. Later kilns were perm anent buildings in which
334J Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей the bricks were slowlyheated up and allowed to cool over aperiod of fourdays. From the Middle East, the ancient craft ofbrickmaking spread westward to Egypt and the Mediterranean and eastward to India and China. Roman builders brought bricks to Britain in the 1st centuryAD,but when the Roman Empire fellin the 5th century, the art ofbrickmaking waslost forsome 600 years. It was revived by the Italians in the 11th century and spread quickly throughout northern Europe. Bythe mid-17th centurybrick-built walls were replacing the old timber frameworks in buildings. • TA PESCRIPT 6A THE ELASTIC THEORY OF STRUCTURES A significant achievement of the first industrial age was the emergence ofbuilding science, particularly the elastic theory of structures. Withit, mathematical models couldbe used to predict structural performance with considerable accuracy, provided there was adequate quality control ofthe materials used.Althoughsome elements of the elastic theory, such as the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler’s theory of column buckling (1757), were worked out earlier, the real developmentbegan with the English scientist ThomasYoung’s modern definition ofthe modulus of elasticityin 1807. Louis Navierpublished the elastic theory ofbeamsin 1826, and three methods of analyzing forces in trusses were devisedby Squire Whipple, A. Ritter, and James ClerkMaxwellbetween 1847 and 1864.The concept of a statically determinate structure — thatis, a structure whoseforces couldbedeterminedfrom Newton’s lawsofmotion alone — was setforthbyOtto Mohrin 1874, after having been used intuitively for perhaps 40 years. Most 19th-century structures were purposelydesigned and fabricated withpinjoints to be statically determinate; it was not until the 20th century that statically indeterminate structures became readily solvable. The elastic theory formed the basis of structural analysis until World WarII, whenbomb-damagedbuildings were observedto behavein unpredicted ways and the underlying assumptions ofthe theory were found to require modification.
TAPESCRIPTS - lili • TAPESCRIPT 6B NANOTECHNOLODY'S FOR R EA L IN THE BUILDING INDUSTRY Nanotechnology issometimes seen as allhype, with little real- world application. But nanomaterials are already all around us Takethebuildingsthat we live and workin, forinstance. You will find nanotechnology used to create stronger steel, self-cleaning glass, solar-collecting fabrics, and even smog-eating concrete. And not only are these nanomaterials present in ourbuildings, they are makingthem betterplacesto live and work. Self-cleaning glass has a nanoparticle coating dirt can’t stick to, eliminating the need for expensive and dangerous manual window washing on tall buildings. Solar-collecting fabric is the first of a new wave ofbuilding components that convert solar radiation into electricity That means no more applying unattractive solarpanels to the roof,but instead integrating energyproduction into building facades. Nanocomposite steel is more corrosion resistant than conventional steel, and can reduce installation costs byup to 50%.And the quantity required to make abuilding may be up to 40% lessthan conventional steel. Smog-eating concrete is producedbyapplying a nanolayer oftitanium dioxide to concrete, which triggers a catalytic reaction that destroys m any pollutants in contact with the surface. At the very least, these materials reduce building m aintenance costs, leaving more money for other improvements, and they canhelpclean up the environment. They can reduce energy costs as well.Andfor every nanomaterial available today, there are approximately seventy more in research and development, meaning that building construction and architecture are in for somebig changes thanks to small technology. • TAP ESCRIPT 7A A HORIZONTAL SUPPORT Abeam is a structural component mainly working inbending through the agency ofvertical forces and that transmits to the bearing points the loads that are applied to it.Abeam is alengthened and
3 3 6 I Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей horizontal support made ofmetal, wood, reinforced orprestressed concrete and whose section has been studied for agood bending strength Beams are mainly subjected to bending moments and shearing forces. Simplebeams are made up of onlyone piece, of a section calculated to withstand the strains that aim at making them bending. When the strains become too strong, reinforced beamsorcompoundbeams arethen used.Beams rest - either on abearing with restraint (cantilever) or are restrained atboth ends (exceptional); - either on a cantilever and are then presented as continuous beams to which havebeen added a number of extra articulations in order to free oneself ofthe consequences ofthe difference in level ofthe supports, - either on two free bearings, free and restrained; they are independent or isostaticbeams. Thesebeams work on the positive bending moment in the middle of span and with simple shearing force on bearing, - either on several bearings (beam in continuity); they are continuous orhyperstaticbeams. This type ofbeam bears on one hand apositivebending moment much weakerthan anindependent beam; but, on the other hand, when on bearing, it bears an important negativebending moment as well asthe shearingforce. • TAP ESCRIPT 7B ROOF The roof of abuilding often reflects the climate ofthe place in which thebuilding islocated since itprotects the people initfrom rain and sun. Indry countries the roofisflat and canbe used as an outdoor room when the sun is nottoo hot Whereitoften rains the roofusuallyslopes sothatthe wet can run offit, and where there are snowfalls, the roofslopes steeplyso thatthe snow will slide off and notbuild upinto athicklayer. A roofthat slopesis called apitched roof. After a time people found it inconvenient to live in a house with sloping sides, so they built upright walls and laid big beams
TAPESCRIPTS 3 3 7 called tie-beams acrossthe top at regulardistances from each other Then they put up the triangular frameworks resting on the tie- beams. These triangles ofbeams are called trusses A ridge-piece, purlins, and rafters were used to complete the skeleton ofthe roof. In the MiddleAgesthe woodenframe ofthe roofwas not hidden by a ceiling on the inside and was often richly decorated. To increase the effect ofheightand spacethehammer-beam roofwasdesigned Thishad no tie-beams, but instead there were shortbeams sticking out from both walls, and to thesebeams othertimbers called struts were fixed to support the mam rafters. The waterproof covering of a pitched roof is usually of tiles, slates, or shingles. Tiles are thin slabs ofbaked clay, generally red or brown in colour. Stripsofwood calledbattens are fixedto the outside ofthe rafters, usually oversheets of weatherproof roofing- felt which help to keep out draughts and wind-blown snow The tiles, shingles, or slates are then hung on by projecting pieces called mbs, or nailed or clipped to the battens in regular horizontal rows or courses. Flat roofs usuallyconsist ofboards covered with overlapping sheets of roofing felt coated with bitumen When a roof has to cover a large space, steel trusses are used instead of wood. Large flat roofs maybe made of reinforced concrete with a waterproof covering. • TAPESCRIPT 8A STRUCTURAL BUILDING ENGINEERING Structural building engineering includes all structural engineering related to the design of buildings. It is the branch of structural engineering that is close to architecture. Structural building engineering is prim arily driven by the creative manipulation of materials and forms and the underlying m athematical and scientific ideas to achieve an end which fulfills its functional requirements and is structurally safe when subjected to all the loads it could reasonablybe expected to experience. This is subtly different from architectural design, which isdrivenbythe creative manipulation of materials and forms, mass, space, texture and light to achieve an end which is aesthetic, functional and often artistic.
338 Английскийязыкдлястудентовстроительныхспециальностей The structural design for abuilding must ensure thatthebuilding isable to stand up safely, able to function without deflections or movements which may cause fatigue ofstructural elements, cracking or failure of fixtures, fittings or partitions, or discomfort for occupants. It must account for movements and forces due to temperature, creep, cracking andimposedloads. Itmust also ensure that the design ispracticallybuildable within acceptable manufacturing tolerances ofthe materials. Itmust allow the architecture to work, and thebuilding servicesto fitwithin thebuilding and function(air conditioning, ventilation, electrics, etc). The structural design of a modembuilding canbe extremelycomplex, and oftenrequires a large team to complete. • TA PESCRIPT 8B STRUCTURAL ENGINEER Structural engineers analyse, design, plan, and research structural components and structural systems to achieve designgoals and ensure the safety and comfort of users or occupants. Their worktakes accountofsafety,technical, economic and environmental concerns, but they may also consider aesthetic and socialfactors. Typical structures designed by a structural engineer include buildings, towers and bridges. Other structures such as oil rigs, space satellites, aircraft and ships may also be designed by a structural engineer. M ost structural engineers are employed in the construction industry, howeverthere are also structural engineers in the aerospace, automobile and shipbuilding industries. In the construction industry, they work closely with architects, civil engineers, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, surveyors, and construction managers. Structural engineers ensure that buildings and bridges are built to be strong enough and stable enough to resist all appropriate structural loads in orderto prevent or reduce loss oflife orinjury. They also design structures to be stiffenough to not deflect or vibrate beyond acceptablelimits. Fatigue maybe an important consideration forbridges and for aircraft design, or for other structures which
TAPESCRIPTS 3 3 9 experience a large number of stress cycles over their lifetime Consideration is also given to durability of materials against possible deterioration which may impair performance over the design lifetime. • TAP ESCRIPT 9A SURVEYING AS A CAREER The basic principles of surveying have changed little over the ages, but the tools usedby surveyorshave evolved tremendously Engineering, especially civil engineering, depends heavily on surveyors. Wheneverthere are roads, railways, reservoir, dams, retaining walls, bridgesorresidential areasto bebuilt, surveyors are involved. They establish theboundaries oflegaldescriptionsand theboundaries ofvariouslines ofpoliticaldivisions. They also provide advice and data for geographical information systems, computer databases that contain data on land features and boundaries. Surveyors must have a thorough knowledge of algebra, basic calculus, geometry, and trigonometry. They must also know the laws that deal with surveys, property, and contracts. In addition, they must be able to use delicate instruments with accuracy and precision. In the United States, surveyors and civil engineers use units offeet wherein a surveyfoot isbroken down into lOths and lOOths. In most states ofthe U S , surveying isrecognized as adistinct profession apart from engineering. Licensing requirem ents vary by state, howeverthese requirements generallyallhave a component ofeducation, experience and examinations. In the past, expenence gained through an apprenticeship, together with passing a senes ofstate-administered examinations, was required to attain licensure Nowadays, most states insist uponbasic qualification of adegree in surveying in addition to experience and examination requirements.
340IАнглийский язык для студентов строительных специальностей • TA PESCRIPT 9В MODERN THEODOLITES In today’s theodolites, the reading out of the horizontal and vertical circlesis usually done electronically.The readout isdone bya rotary encoder, which can be absolute, e.g . usingGray codes, or incremental, using equidistant light and dark radialbands. In the latter case the circles spin rapidly, reducing angle measurement to electronic measurement oftime differences. Additionally, lately computer-controlled display sensors havebeen added to the focal planeofthe telescope allowingboth auto-taigetmg and the automated measurement of residual target offset. All this isimplemented in embedded software. Also, many modern theodolites, costing up to $10,000 apiece, are equipped with integrated electro-optical distance measuring devices, generally infraredbased, allowing the measurement in one go of complete three-dimensional vectors which can then be transformed to a pre-existing co-ordinate system in the area by means of a sufficient number of control points. This technique is called a resection solution orfree station position surveying and is widelyused in mapping surveying The instruments, “ intelligent” theodolites called self-registering tacheometers or “total stations” , perform the necessary operations, saving data into internal registering units, or into external data storage devices. Typically, ruggedized laptops are used asdata collectorsforthispurpose. • TAP ESCRIPT 10A FOUNDATIONS OF LOW-RISE BUILDINGS All foundations must transmit the building loads to a stable stratum of earth. There are two criteria for stability: first, the soil under the foundations shouldbe able to receive theimposed load without more than about 2.5 centimetres of settlement and, second, the settlement should be uniform under the entire building. Itis also importantthatthebottom ofthefoundationbebelow the maximum winter frost level Wet soil expands as it freezes, and repeated
TAPESCRIPTS 341 freeze-thaw cycles can move the building up anddown, leading to possible displacement and damage. M aximum frost depth varies with climate and topography It can be asdeep as 1.5 metres in cold continental climates and is zeroin tropical and some subtropical areas. The foundation systems forlow-rise residentialbuildings are suitable for their light loads; nearly all are supported on spread footings, which are of two types — continuous footings that support walls and isolatedpad footings that support concentrated loads. The footings themselves are usually made of concrete poured directlyon undisturbed soilto a minimum depth of about 30 centimetres. Foundation walls canbebuilt ofreinforced concrete or masonry, particularlyconcrete block. Concrete blocks are ofa standard size largerthan bricks and arehollow, forming agrid ofverticalplanes. They are the least expensive form of masonry — using cheap but strong material — and theirlarge size economizes on the labour required to lay them. Their appearance and weatheringproperties are inferiorto those offired masonry,but they are satisfactoryfor foundation walls, in someplacestimberfoundation walls and spread footings are used Excavation for foundations is the most highly mechanized operationin thisbuilding type; itisdone almost entirely withbulldozers andbackhoes. • TAPESCRIPT 10B PIPE PILES Pipe pilesare a type of steel drivenpile foundation and are a good candidate for battered piles. Pipe pilescan bedriven either open end or closed end.Whendriven open end, soil is allowedto enter thebottom ofthepipeor tube. Ifanemptypipe is required, a jet of water or an auger canbe used to remove the soilinside following driving. Closed end pipe piles are constructed by covering thebottom ofthepilewithasteelplate orcast steel shoe. In some cases, pipe piles are filled with concrete to provide additional moment capacity or corrosion resistance.
342IАнглийский язык для студентов строительных специально' тей In the United Kingdom, thisis not generallydone in order to reduce the cost. In these cases, corrosionprotection isprovidedby allowing for asacrificial thickness of steel orby adopting a higher grade of steel. Ifa concrete filledpipe pileis corroded, most ofthe load carrying capacity of the pile will remain intact due to the concrete, whileitwillbelost in an emptypipepile. The structural capacity ofpipepilesisprimarilycalculated based on steel strength and concrete strength (iffilled). The thickness of the steel consideredfordetermining capacity istypicallyreducedby 1/16 in. compared to the actual pipe to account for corrosion. Steelpipe piles can either be new steel manufactured specifically for the piling industry or reclaimed steel tubular casing previously used for otherpurposes such as oil and gas exploration. • TAPESCRIPT 11A MASONRY WALLS Structural masonry walls are primarily used in multistoreyed buildings, where they offergreater load-bearing capacity and fire resistance. Brick and concrete block are the major materials, brick being favoured for exterior surfacesbecause ofits appearance and durability. Solidbrick walls are rarelyused due to the higherlabour and material costs; composite walls ofbrick andblock orblock alone are common. Cavity walls are used in colder climates; in these, two with verticallayers of masonry are built on either side of alayer of rigid insulation. The wythes arejoined togetherby steel reinforcement that runs through the insulation and is laid in the horizontal masonry joints at intervals. Cavity walls have a heat-flow rate that is 50 percent ofthat of a solid wall.Timberfloor and roof construction, similar to balloon framing, is used with masonry construction; and there is also some use ofprecast prestressed hollow concrete panels which are fireproof and can span up to nine metres.
SUPPLEMEMARY READING 343 • TA PESCRIPT 11B VENEER MASONRY A masonry veneer wall consists ofmasonry units, usuallyclay- based bricks, installed on one or both sides of a structurally independent wall usuallyconstructed of wood or masonry. In this contextthe brick masonry isprimarily decorative, not structural. Thebrick veneeris generally connected to the structural wallby bnckties (metal strips that are attached to the structural wall, as well asthe mortarjoints ofthebrick veneer).There istypicallyan airgapbetween the brick veneer and the structural wall.As clay- based brick is usually not completely waterproof, the structural wall will often have a water-resistant surface (usually tar paper) and weep holes can be left at the base of the brick veneer to drain moisture that accumulates inside the air gap. Concrete blocks, real and cultured stones, and veneer adobe are sometimes used in a very similar veneer fashion. Most insulated buildings that utilize concrete block, brick, adobe, stone, veneers or some combination thereoffeature interior insulation in the form offiberglassbatts between wooden wall studs or in the form of rigid insulation boards covered with plaster or dry wall. In mostclimatesthisinsulationis much more effective on the exterior of the wall, allowing the building interior to take advantage ofthe aforementioned thermal mass ofthe masonry. This technique does, however, require some sort of weather-resistant exterior surface overthe insulation and, consequently, isgenerally more expensive. • TAPESCRIPT 12A INTERIOR FINISHES OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Interior finishes and space-division systems define the living spaces within residentialbuildings with a range ofboth natural and synthetic materials. The most widely used wall finish is gypsum board, a prefabricated form oftraditional wet plaster. Wet gypsum plaster is cast between paperfacings to form large panels that are
344IАнглийский язык для студентов строительных специальностей nailed to lighttimber or metal frameworks Thejoints between the panels are filled with a hard-setting resin compound, giving a smooth seamless surface that has considerable fire resistance. Gypsum board forms the substrate to which a number of other materials, including thin wood-veneered plywood and vinyl fabrics, can be applied with adhesives. In wet areas such as kitchens and bathrooms, water-resistant gypsum board is used, sometimes with the addition of adhesive-applied ceramic tile. Doors in residential buildings are usually of the hollow, core type, with thin veneers of wood glued over a honey-comb paper core and solid wood edge strips: door frames are typically made of machined timber shapes. Plasticlaminates bonded to particleboard are extensivelyused forbuilt-in cabinets and countertops. The most common floorfinish is carpeting, most of whichis now made of synthetic fibres, displacing the traditional wool and cotton. It can be easily maintained and its soft visual and tactile texture as well as its sound-absorbing qualities make it attractive for residential use. Hardwoods — primarilyoak,birch, and maple — are also usedfor floors, both in the traditional narrow planks nailed to plywood decks and asprefabricated parquet elements which are applied with adhesives. In wet or hard-use areas vinyl-composition tiles or ceramic tiles are used. • TAPESCRIPT 12B PLASTER SLABS For partitions and ceilings, plaster slabs are now in general use when work has to be finished quickly. For ceilings they require simplyto be nailed to thejoists, thejoints being made with plaster, and the whole finished with a thin setting coat. In some cases, withfireprooffloors, forinstance, the slabs are hung up with wire hangers so as to allow a space of several inchesbetween the soffit of the concrete floor and the ceiling. For partitions the slabs frequently have the edges tongued and grooved to form abetter connection; often, too, they are holed through vertically, so that, when grouted in with semi-fluid plaster, the whole partition isbound together,
SUPPLEMENTARY READING 345 as it were, withplasterdowels. Where verygreat strength isrequired the work may be reinforced by small iron rods through the slabs. This forms a very strong and rigid partition which is at the same time fire-resisting and oflightweight, and when finished measures onlyfrom two to fourinches(102 mm)thick. The slabs maybe obtained either with a keyed surface, which requiresfinishing with a setting coat when the partition or ceiling isin position, or a smooth finished face, which maybe papered or painted immediately the joints have been carefully made. Partitions are also formed with one or other ofthe forms of metal lathing fixed to iron uprights andplastered on both sides. So strong is the result that partitions ofthis class only two or three inches (76mm) thick were used fortemporary cellsforprisoners at Newgate Gaol during the rebuilding of the new sessions house in the Old Baileyin London.
BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Пособие по английскому языку для инженерно-строи­ тельных и архитектурных вузов / А.И . Бурлак [и др.] . — М: Высшая школа, 1975. 2. Пособие по английскому языку для студентов II—III кур­ сов строительных вузов / Е.В . Горбунова [и др.]. — М.: Высшая школа, 1978. 3. КаммингДж. Английский язык для студентов архитек­ турных и строительных специальностей. — М: Астрель, ACT, 2004. 4. Поздняков А.А ., Быков В.В. Англо-русский словарь по строительству и новым технологиям. — М.: Русский язык, 2003. 5. Английский язык для инженеров / Т.Ю . Полякова [и др.] . — М.: Высшая школа, 2007. 6. Турук И. Ф. Английский язык. Грамматические основы чтения специального текста. — М.: МГУЭСИ, 2006. 7. Bordman М. In the USA. — London: Chancerel, 1999. 8. Children’s Britannica Encyclopaedia, 1996. 9. Hewitt K. Understanding Britain. — Oxford: Perspective, 2000. 10. Kum arS. Building Construction. — Delhi: Standard, 1988. 11. Kurtz J- -P Dictionary o f Civil Engineering. — N .Y.: Plenum Publishers, 2004. 12. Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture. — Harlow: Longman, 2005. 13. Murphy R. English Grammar in Use for Intermediate Students. — Cambridge: CUP, 2004. 14. New Civil Engineering International [Journal], L, 2003 — 2010. 15. New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007. 16. Oxford Guide to British and American Culture for Learners of English // Edited by J. Crowther . — Oxford: OUP, 2005.
LIBLIOGRAPHY 3 47 17. Reader’s Digest: How Was It Done? The Story of Human Ingenuity through the Ages. — London: The Reader’s Association, 2000. 18. Swan M., Waller C. How English Works. A Grammar Practice Book. — Oxford: O U P, 2002. 19. Vaughan-Rees M. In Britain. — London: Chancerel, 1997. 20. White L. Engineering Workshop. — Oxford: O U P, 2003. 21. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia [Интернет-ресурс]. — Режим доступа: http://en.wikipedia.org.
CONTENTS П р е д и с л о в и е .............................................................................................................. 3 UNIT 1. BUILDING C ONSTRUCTION............................................................... 6 UNIT 2. GREAT C IV IL E N G IN E E R S ............................................................... 29 UNIT 3 . JO BS IN CONSTR UCTION.................................................................49 UNIT 4 . A LIVING P L A C E ....................................................................................71 UNIT 5. BUIL DING M AT ERIALS ...................................................................... 93 UNIT 6 . BU ILDING S C IE NC E..........................................................................1 1 9 UNIT 7 . STRUCTURAL E LEM ENTS................................................................143 UNIT 8 . STRUCT URAL E N G IN E E R IN G ..................................................... 167 UNIT 9. S U R V EY ING ...........................................................................................189 UNIT 1 0. FOUNDATIONS OF B U IL D IN G S ................................................ 212 UNIT 1 1. BUIL DING TH E W A L L S ................................................................233 UNIT 1 2 . FINISH ING TH E IN S I D E ............................................................ 2 5 5 SUPPLEM ENTARY READ ING ............................................................................276 T A P E S C R IP T S ..........................................................................................................326 B ib li o g r a p h y ..........................................................................................................3 46
Серия «Высшее образование» Гарагуля Сергей Иванович АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ СТРОИТЕЛЬНЫХ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ Learning Building Construction in English Ответственный за выпуск Корректор Художник Верстка: Кузнецов В. Семенова О. Тимофеева Е. Патулова А. Сдано в набор 28 01 2011 г. Подписано в печать 25.07 2011 г Формат 84 х 108 1/ 32 Бумага типографская. Гарнитура Times Тираж 2 500 Заказ No 312 ООО «Феникс» 344082, г. Ростов-на -Дону, пер. Халтуринский, 80 Отпечатано с готовых диапозитивов в ЗАО «Книга». 344019, г Ростов-на -Дону, ул. Советская, 57

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Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей: учеб. пособие. — Изд. 3-е, испр.. (Гарагуля)Купить книгу, доставка почтой, скачать бесплатно, читать онлайн, низкие цены со скидкой, ISBN 978-5-222-23978-0

Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей: учеб. пособие. - Изд. 3-е, испр.

Название книги Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей: учеб. пособие. — Изд. 3-е, испр.
Автор Гарагуля
Год публикации 2015
Издательство Феникс
Раздел каталога Языкознание (ID = 180)
Серия книги Высшее образование
ISBN 978-5-222-23978-0
EAN13 9785222239780
Артикул O0069152
Количество страниц 347
Тип переплета цел.
Формат 84*108/32
Вес, г 387

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Учебное пособие построено на базе вузовского стандарта курса иностранного языка для неязыковых вузов и рассчитано на профессионально-ориентированный этап обучения. Основная цель учебного пособия — развитие и совершенствование умения читать и переводить оригинальную литературу по специальности, а также навыков устной речи и аудирования в пределах пройденной тематики. Уделяется особое внимание расширению словарного запаса по строительному делу, изучению и тренировке грамматических структур, которые характеризуются высокой частотностью употребления в научной речи.
Предназначено для студентов инженерно-строительных вузов, может быть рекомендовано магистрантам, аспирантам, научным работникам и широкому кругу специалистов-практиков, желающих повысить свой уровень владения профессиональным английским языком.

Читать онлайн выдержки из книги «Английский язык для студентов строительных специальностей: учеб. пособие. — Изд. 3-е, испр.»
(Автор Гарагуля)

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О книге

Основная цель — развитие у студентов умения читать и переводить оригинальную литературу по специальности, а также совершенствование навыков устной речи, аудирования и письма в пределах пройденной темы. Особое внимание уделяется расширению словарногозапаса по строительному делу, изучению грамматических структур, которые характеризуются высокой частотностью употребления в научной речи.Соответствует ФГОС ВО последнего поколения.Для студентов бакалавриата, обучающихся по направлениям «Градостроительство» и «Строительство».

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Описание книги

Основная цель — развитие у студентов умения читать и переводить оригинальную литературу по специальности, а также совершенствование навыков устной речи, аудирования и письма в пределах пройденной темы. Особое внимание уделяется расширению словарного

запаса по строительному делу, изучению грамматических структур, которые характеризуются высокой частотностью употребления в научной речи.

Соответствует ФГОС ВО последнего поколения.

Для студентов бакалавриата, обучающихся по направлениям «Градостроительство» и «Строительство».

Книга Сергея Ивановича Гарагули «Английский язык в сфере строительства English for Building Engineering. (Бакалавриат). Учебник.» — читать онлайн на сайте. Оставляйте комментарии и отзывы, голосуйте за понравившиеся.

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Дата выхода на Литрес:

21 октября 2023

Последнее обновление:

2024

Общее кол-во страниц:

365

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