Эссе на тему школьное образование в россии на английском языке

Education in RussiaОбразование в России

The Russian children usually start to go to school when they are seven years old. First the children learn at the elementary school. They visit the elementary school for four years. The children get there the elementary education. It means they learn to count, to read and to write. In the most schools the children also learn a foreign language beginning from the second form.

Русские дети обычно начинают ходить в школу, когда им исполняется семь лет. Сначала дети учатся в начальной школе. Начальную школу они посещают в течение четырех лет. Там они получают начальное образование. Это значит, что они учатся считать, читать и писать. В большинстве школ дети также начинают изучать иностранный язык, начиная со второго класса.

The fifth form means the beginning of the secondary education. The children learn different subjects, for example Biology, Literature, Chemistry, Physics, Informatics. In Russia the nine-year basic incomplete secondary education is compulsory. After that the children have to decide what they will do from now forth. On the one hand, they can continue their schooling and get the complete eleven-year secondary education. On the other hand, they can enter a college giving them the complete secondary education and trade training. After graduating from college the young people became financially independent and can start to work.

Пятый класс означает начало получения среднего образования. Дети изучают различные предметы, например, биологию, литературу, химию, физику, информатику. В России обязательным является девятилетнее незаконченное среднее образование. После этого дети должны решить, что они будут делать в дальнейшем. С одной стороны, они могут продолжить свою учебу в школе и получить одиннадцатилетнее законченное среднее образование. С другой стороны, они могут поступить в какой-либо колледж, который даст им и законченное среднее образование, и обучение по специальности. После окончания колледжа молодые люди становятся независимыми в финансовом отношении и могут начинать работать.

Currently there are different types of schools in Russia. The children and their parents can choose a regular school, a school with advanced study of some subject, a private school. Private schools in Russia are always fee-paying.

В настоящее время в России существуют разные типы школ. Дети и их родители могут выбрать общеобразовательную школу, школу с углубленным изучением какого-либо предмета, частную школу. Частные школы в России всегда платные.

After graduating from school or college our young people can enter universities or institutes, where they get higher education.

После окончания школы или колледжа молодые люди могут поступать в университеты или институты, где они получают высшее образование.

Словарь

  • exception [ɪkˈsepſ(ə)n] — исключение;
  • compulsory [kəmˈpʌlsərɪ] — обязательно;
  • skill [skɪl] — мастерство;
  • to depend [dɪˈpend] — зависить;
  • mandatory [ˈmændətərɪ] — обязательный;

Education is an important part of modern life.

Originally Russian education starts from the early age. Children can start going to kindergarten from the age of two, but this is not a compulsory education. It depends on parents’ decision and child’s wish to attend this institution. 

In the Russian Federation the school education is compulsory. Pupils start going to school from the age of seven and till 16.

Mandatory education in Russia is presented by three types of schools: primary, secondary and high.

The primary school teaches its pupils elementary skills, such as reading, writing, counting. Many schools also offer foreign languages or some other special disciplines at this age.

The most important period is the secondary school, which starts from the 4th or 5th grade, depending on school. This is the time when children start learning Biology, Geography, Chemistry, Physics, Computing, and many other new subjects.

At the 9th grade children face a very important period in their life. They have to choose whether to continue school education, or to leave for other types of educational institutions, such as college, specialized schools and else. If the pupil decides to continue studying in high school, which lasts for two years, he can enter the university after school graduation.

Of course, it’s only the general pattern of education in Russia, but there can also be some exceptions nowadays. For example, there are lots of special schools, where they pay attention only to particular subjects. Also, apart from state schools, there are a number of private schools, where education is not free of charge.

When they complete high grades they can either continue to study at school for more 2 years, or go to a professional school where they study not only main subjects, but are able to learn some profession. When school pupils leave school they can try to continue their educaton in institutes or universities.

Топик «Образование в России» (Education in Russia)4.2 out of
5
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Russians have always shown a great concern for education. The right to education is stated in the Constitution of the Russian Federation. It is ensured by compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools, and higher education establishments. It is also ensured by the development of extramural and evening courses and the system of state scholarships and grants.

Education in Russia is compulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. The stages of compulsory schooling in Russia are: primary education for ages 6-7 to 9-10 inclusive; secondary education including intermediate school for ages 10-11 to 12-13 inclusive, and senior school for ages 13-14 to 14-15 inclusive. If a pupil of a secondary school wishes to go on in higher education, he or she must stay at school for two more years. Primary and secondary school together comprise 11 years of study. Every school has a «core curriculum» of academic subjects, such as Russian, Literature, Mathematics, History, a foreign language and others. Lyceums and gymnasiums offer programs giving a profound knowledge in some field of study.

After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which offers programmes of academic subjects and a programme of training in a technical field, or a profession.

After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a gymnasium one can go on in higher education. All applicants must take competitive examinations. Higher education institutions, that is, institutes or universities, offer a 5-year programme of academic subjects for undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course. If one finishes a graduate course and writes a thesis, he or she receives a candidate’s degree or a doctoral degree.

Higher educational establishments are headed by Rectors. Prorectors are in charge of academic and scientific work. An institute or a university has a number of faculties, each specializing in a field of study. Faculties have specialized councils which confer candidate and doctoral degrees.

The system of secondary and higher education in Russia is going through a transitional period. The main objectives of the reform are: to decentralize the higher education system, to develop a new financial mechanism, to give more academic freedoms to faculties and students. All secondary schools, institutes and universities until recently have been funded by the state. Now there is quite a number of private fee-paying primary and secondary schools; some universities have fee-paying departments.

Topical Vocabulary

— to show a great concern for education

придавать большое значение образованию

the right to education

право на образование

to be stated

отмечаться, констатироваться

to be ensured by smth.

обеспечиваться чем-либо

a secondary school

средняя школа

a vocational school

училище

a higher education establishment

вуз

an extramural course

заочное обучение

an evening course

вечернее обучение

state scholarships and grants

государственные стипендии

compulsory schooling

обязательное школьное обучение

primary education

начальное образование

secondary education

среднее образование

intermediate school

средние классы

senior school

старшие классы

to go on in higher education

продолжать образование в вузе

a core curriculum

основная программа

an academic subject

академический предмет

to give a profound knowledge

давать углубленные знания

— a programme of training in smth.

программа подготовки по какому-либо предмету

— an applicant

абитуриент

to take competitive examinations

сдавать конкурсные экзамены

a higher education institution

вуз

a graduate course

аспирантура

a candidate degree

степень кандидата наук

a doctoral degree

степень доктора наук

— to be headed by Rector

возглавляться ректором

to be in charge of academic and scientific work

отвечать за учебную и научную работу

a specialized council

специализированный совет

to confer a degree

присваивать степень

— to go through a transitional period

находиться в переходном периоде

to decentralize smth.

уничтожить централизацию в чем-либо

to develop a new financial mechanism

создать новый финансовый механизм

to be funded by the state

финансироваться государством

a private school

частная школа

a fee-paying school

платная школа

Answer the questions:

  1. What is the right to education in Russia ensured by?
  2. What are the stages of compulsory schooling in Russia?
  3. What programmes of study do different types of school in Russia offer?
  4. What is a vocational school?
  5. What is necessary for entering a higher education establishment?
  6. What degrees can one get at a higher education establishment?
  7. What is the structure of an institute or a university?
  8. How can you prove that education in Russia is going through a transitional period?

Translate into English:

  1. Право на образование, записанное в конституции, доказывает, что в России придается большое значение образованию.
  2. Существует два этапа обязательного школьного образования в России: начальное образование и среднее образование.
  3. Обязательное среднее образование в России состоит из двух этапов: средние классы и старшие классы.
  4. Во всех школах есть основная программа; лицеи и гимназии предлагают академические программы и программы, дающие углубленные знания в одной из областей.
  5. Поступающие в вуз должны закончить 11 классов средней школы и пройти через конкурсные вступительные экзамены.
  6. После окончания курса аспирантуры и написания диссертации аспирант получает степень кандидата наук.
  7. Во время переходного периода меняется финансовый механизм образования: появляются частные школы и платные отделения в институтах.

Посмотреть ответы

An educated person is one who knows a lot about many things. I think it is very important that everyone should be educated. Each pupils ought to do his best to become a useful member of our society. Education is very important in our life. Going on educational excursions gives us opportunities to acquire some scientific knowledge.

In the Russian Federation the school education is compulsory. Pupils begin to go to school at the age of six. When they complete high grades they can either continue to study at school for more 2 years, or go to a professional school where they study not only main subjects , but are able to learn some profession. When school pupils leave school they can try to continue their education in institutes or universities.

There are many school types of schools in Russia: specialized, polytechnic, musical art and others. Nowadays appeared some new types of schools: gymnasiums and colleges.

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School education is an important element of education in modern society, forming the child’s basic knowledge and skills. Since from September 1, 2013, pre-school education was included by the Federal Law «On Education in the Russian Federation» into the general education structure, the concepts of «school education» and «general education» in Russia ceased to be synonymous from a legal point of view. Complete secondary education in the school lasts 11 classes. Incomplete secondary education lasts 9 classes. Schools in Russia give general education to students. Schools that give only a standard course of general education are simply referred to as «secondary schools,» and schools that provide in-depth knowledge of individual disciplines, or introduce their own disciplines in addition to compulsory courses, can be called otherwise («school with in-depth study of subjects,» «lyceum «,» Gymnasium «). Education in public secondary schools (including schools with in-depth study of subjects) is officially free. In the last decades of the existence of the USSR, schools also provided students with textbooks for free, now the tutorials are being purchased. Until 1986, the school year was 10 years (primary school — 3 years, basic — 5 years, senior — 2). Then, as an experiment, a 4-year elementary school course was introduced, but the students were given the opportunity to learn by the 3-year (10-year) or 4-year (11-year) program. At the same time, students who studied under the 3-year program, when they moved to the main stage, «jumped over the number» — from grade 3 switched to the 5th class, and simultaneously, in 1989 such a «jump» was made in all classes. Currently, 3-year primary education is completely canceled: all newly enrolled children are enrolled in an 11-year program. The standard terms for the development of general education programs in general education levels, adopted by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of March 23, 2001 No. 224: I level (primary general education) — 4 years; II level (basic general education) — 5 years; III level (secondary (complete) general education) — 2 years. Primary and basic general education at school in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation is mandatory for all. Responsibility is placed on parents or legal representatives who, taking into account the opinion of children, have the right to choose an educational institution and the form of teaching children before they receive a basic general education. The acquisition of education is limited by the student’s academic time, according to the Federal State Educational Standard (GEF). The school course is divided into three stages, officially named: «primary school», «primary school» and «senior classes».

Ахах, больше получилось ) шо ж поделать ))

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